Servers

How to Get Your Email (and Save Your Reputation) Back

It’s a nightmare most, if not all of us email users, may have experienced at least once in our online lives. You click on send for an important email and milliseconds later see in terror as you spot one, two, three typos and two grammatical lapses. Worse, you hit Reply All, which has everyone at work the recipient of your email.

Undoing your accident may be a lot of work for you, considering your reputation has already taken a dive. However, all is not lost as there still may be one solution for you, particularly if not everyone has opened their emails to marvel at your travesty of an email: You may recall it. A lot of email clients actually have this feature, so let’s see how this can be used, depending on your email service.

Gmail

Gmail, along with its Google brother Chrome, have become the most popular email service and search engines, respectively. Over the years, Gmail has undergone an evolution from being a handy online email service into one of the most indispensable tools for some businesses, not to mention being an important part of Google’s G Suite productivity offerings. And through the years, tons of improvements and updates have been done to Gmail, some of which can be considered successful, while some just earned the chagrin of users for making the platform slower. The update on the service’s message recall feature has been viewed positively since it came out, though. After all, Gmail users aren’t perfect!

The Undo Send feature is on by default on Gmail. Hence, you don’t need to play around any settings to enable it.

As soon as you send an email, you’ll see a pop-up on the bottom left corner of your screen, having the option to View, and Undo message. You can use the same to recall your messages, which will retract the email back to your drafts section. The View message button will not appear for messages sent from within the existing thread, though.

(Via: https://gadgetstouse.com/blog/2019/12/09/how-to-unsend-an-email-on-gmail/)

 

Microsoft Outlook

Microsoft Outlook is perhaps the most popular email services in companies and offices, as it provides seamless integration with other Microsoft products, particularly the ubiquitous MS Office. While it used to be that recalling your email was a challenge in Outlook’s older versions, it cannot be said anymore with the newest updates. Microsoft now allows users to retract an email in Outlook, though there are some requirements for the retraction to be done successfully.

Both the user and recipient require an Exchange server email account and use Outlook as the email client.

The recipient’s mailbox should be open when an Outlook recall process is attempted.

The original Outlook message has to be unread and is in the recipient’s inbox.

Finally, the message cannot be affected by any process, such as a rule, spam filter, or add-in.

(Via: https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/science-technology/1171131/outlook-login-how-to-recall-outlook-email-microsoft-outlook-365-guide)

 

Yahoo Mail

Oh, the much-maligned Yahoo Mail! After surviving so many data breaches, leaks, and cyberattacks, it is a conundrum how some people have continued to stick to their Yahoo Mail accounts. Take note, there are still quite a lot of them. The last major update of Yahoo Mail in relation to email recalling or retracted happened in 2016, so …

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Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop Installation Steps with Screenshots

Canonical has released its stable and latest LTS (Long Term Support) operating system i.e “Ubuntu 20.04” and Code name for Ubuntu 20.04 is “Focal Fossa“. As it is an LTS version so canonical will provide updates and support for next 5 years. In this post we will demonstrate the Installation steps of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS for Laptop or Desktop. Let’s first look into some of the new features that have included in this release.

New Features of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop:

  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS is released with latest and stable kernel version 5.4
  • Package updates and support until 2025.
  • It offers faster boot speed as compared with previous LTS release (18.04)
  • Improved and updated GNOME 3.36 Desktop
  • Improved ZFS file system install support
  • Improved and updated Yaru theme
  • Removed Amazon Web Launcher
  • New Lock Screen

Minimum System Requirements for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop:

  • 4 GB RAM
  • Dual Core Processor (2 GHZ)
  • 25 GB free disk space
  • Installation bootable Media (USB / DVD)
  • Stable Internet Connection (Optional)

Let’s Jump into Installation steps of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop, these steps are application for installing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS on your Laptop, Desktop or even inside a vm (virtual machine).

Step by Step Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop Installation Guide

Step 1) Download Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Desktop ISO File

Download Ubuntu 20.04 LTS desktop iso file from its official web site,

https://ubuntu.com/download/desktop

Once the iso file is downloaded on your system, burn it either into flash drive or DVD and make it bootable.

Read Also : How to Create Bootable USB Disk / DVD on Ubuntu / Linux Mint

On Windows Operating system, we can use “Rufus” tool to create a bootable USB drive from the ISO file.

Step 2) Boot System using Bootable Media (USB / DVD / Flash Drive)

Now reboot the target system on which you are planning to install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and go to its bios settings and change boot medium from disk to above created bootable media such USB or DVD or Flash drive.

Once the system boots up with bootable media then we will get the following screen,

Ubuntu20-04-first-screen-for-installation

After Couple of second we will get below screen, click on “Install Ubuntu” option to start the installation process.

Choose-Install-Ubuntu-Option-Ubuntu20-04-Installation

Step 3) Choose Your preferred Keyboard Layout

In this step, choose your preferred keyboard layout and then click on “Continue”

Keyboard-Layout-Ubuntu20-04-Installation

Step 4) Prepare Installation and Install updates & third-party software

In this step, we have to choose whether we want to go with Normal Installation or Minimal Installation. Difference between these installations is that in “Normal Installation” all the GUI related utilities will be installed during the installation whereas in “Minimal Installation” only basic GUI related utilities will be installed.

Apart from this we have a choice whether we want to install updates and third-part tools like graphics software and additional media formats during installation but choose these options only when you have stable internet connection else untick these options.

Install-Updates-third-party-software-Ubuntu20-04-Installation

Click on Continue to proceed further

Step 5) Choose Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Installation type

In this step, Installer will give option to choose installation type,

  • Erase Disk & Install Ubuntu: Choose this option if you are new to Ubuntu installation and
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What SSD to Buy

The name of the game these days is storage. But not just large storage, but large and speedy storage. And when it comes to large and speedy storage, the market acknowledges solid-state drives as the gold standard. It is a good thing that consumers are now spoilt with choices, as options for SSDs are now faster, bigger, cheaper, and compatible with most systems already present in the market. Thus, there’s never a better time to purchase an SSD.

The wealth of choices in stores can be overwhelming, so we’ve done the curation of the best options for you. Besides, you also need to consider which is the best drive that would suit your laptop the best. But before you read on, take note that some SSDs have rounded off issues. While some claim to have 250 GB and others is at 256 GB, you may consider them to have similar capacity. There’s not common for drives to claim its exact capacity, but the difference is usually more or less 10 GB.

Samsung 970 Evo Plus

Samsung’s newest release, the Samsung 970 Evo Plus, boasts of being faster and more affordable than its predecessor, the 970 Evo. However, generally speaking, it seems that the Samsung 970 Evo Plus is still in the middling crowd, as there are a number of other SSDs that perform better than it.

The 970 Evo Plus therefore looks like more of an attempt at a do-over rather than a chance for the 2018 model’s redemption. The Plus and non-Plus versions aren’t drastically different, both having Samsung-made Phoenix controllers and a maximum advertised read speed of 3,500MB/s, but there have been some key changes. The first is that write speeds have had a big boost on paper, jumping from a maximum 2,500MB/s on the 970 Evo to 3,300MB/s on the Evo Plus; a vast improvement for something that isn’t a full generational leap.

(Via: https://www.expertreviews.co.uk/samsung/1411554/samsung-970-evo-plus-review)

 

Samsung 860 Pro

Although this has not been as updated its Evo counterpart with its last update dating way back 2018, the Samsung 860 Pro is still considered to be one of the best in the market. It is recognized for its great SATA performance, endurance, and consistent performance. The model is quite high-end, though, which discourages budget-conscious shoppers from buying it.

The 860 Pro is also the first NAS-rated prosumer SSD and it should work well in RAID. The EVO series tends to be more reasonably priced and has better performance in general applications, which keeps the 860 Pro firmly in the professional user category.

(Via: https://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/samsung-860-pro-ssd-review,5434.html)

 

Intel Optane SSD 905P

The Intel Optain SSD is known for two things: speed and endurance, both at exceptional levels. For a high performer, though, it might be expected that it consumes a lot of power and has a high price tag. However, its capacity has also left a lot of users wanting.

This wildly pricey internal solid-state drive is, without a doubt, a luxury item for mainstream users, but it’s also prodigiously fast at the types of specialized computing tasks that are the hardest for storage drives to handle: loading massive game files, transferring hours of video footage, booting up your PC, and other similar activities. It’s the ultimate

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How to Install Kubernetes(k8s) with Minikube on CentOS 8

Kubernetes, also known as k8s or simply as Kube, is an open-source container orchestration platform used for the automation scaling and deployment of containers. Minikube is a cross-platform and open-source tool that makes it possible for you to deploy a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your local machine or inside a virtual machine (vm). In this topic, you will learn how to install Kubernetes with Minikube on a CentOS 8 VM.

Prerequisites of MiniKube

  • A copy of freshly installed CentOS 8 (with GUI) VM
  • Minimum of 2 GB RAM and 2 vCPUs
  • 20 GB hard disk space
  • Root privileges
  • A stable internet connection

With all the prerequisites met, it’s time now to roll up our sleeves and get our hands dirty.

Step 1) Install Updates and Disable SELinux

First and foremost, we are going to install the latest available updates necessary for the installation to proceed without any hitches. Run the following dnf command,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf update -y

Next, execute the commands below to disable SELinux,

[[email protected] ~]# setenforce 0
[[email protected] ~]# sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/sysconfig/selinux

Step 2) Install Docker and Enable its Service

Since we are going to deploy a local Kubernetes cluster with MiniKube inside a VM. So, Install Docker CE on your CentOS 8 VM using the following commands,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf config-manager --add-repo=https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
Adding repo from: https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]# dnf install docker-ce --nobest -y

Run following systemctl commands to start and enable docker service,

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start docker
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable docker

Set the following firewall rules using firewall-cmd command,

[[email protected] ~]# firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-masquerade --permanent
[[email protected] ~]# firewall-cmd --reload

Install “conntrack” package using following command, conntrack is the dependency for minikube setup,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install conntrack -y

Note: Kubernetes using MiniKube can be installed on a local machine or server but for that it requires a hypervisor such as KVM or VirtualBox.

Step 3) Install Kubectl Manually

Kubectl is a command-line tool which interacts with Kubernetes cluster via APIs. Using kubectl we deploy our applications as deployment. By default, kubectl is not included in CentOS 8 package repositories. Therefore, we are going to manually install it using beneath commands,

[[email protected] ~]# curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/`curl -s https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/stable.txt`/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl
[[email protected] ~]# chmod +x ./kubectl
[[email protected] ~]# mv ./kubectl /usr/local/bin/kubectl
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl version --client

Output of above commands would be something like below,

install-kubelet-manually-centos8

Step 4) Install and Start Minikube

After installing the kubectl, let’s install minikube using the following commands,

[[email protected] ~]# curl -Lo minikube https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/latest/minikube-linux-amd64
[[email protected] ~]#  chmod +x minikube
[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /usr/local/bin/
[[email protected] ~]# install minikube /usr/local/bin/

To start Minikube run the command:

[[email protected] ~]# minikube start --driver=none

minikube-start-centos8

As we can see above output, minikube command has downloaded and started the docker containers for setting up single node Kubernetes cluster.

Run below minikube command to verify the status of your local Kubernetes cluster,

[[email protected] ~]# minikube status
host: Running
kubelet: Running
apiserver: Running
kubeconfig: Configured
[[email protected] ~]# minikube ip
192.168.29.216
[[email protected] ~]#

To stop a Kubernetes cluster, execute,

[[email protected] ~]# minikube stop

Execute the “kubectl cluster-info” command to view cluster information,

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl cluster-info

kubectl-cluster-info-centos8

Run below command to view cluster nodes,

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME               STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
minikube-centos8   
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Satisfy Your Preference for Huge Flash Drives

The way storage technology has progressed recently has been staggering. Solid-state drives are now packaged into the size of chocolate bars, while portable hard drives are so powerful that terabytes of data can now fit into these devices that look like passports (pun intended as this is a WD hard drive model).

But even if these devices shrink in size, there is still a sizable market for the USB flash drive. After all, USB 3.0 ports are already built in most laptops, especially the newer models. Of course, even if SSDs and external SATAs are getting smaller, USB flash drives are still the smallest. What’s more, these minute devices now pack so much punch with their storage capacities. Let’s see which USB flash drives have impressed users with their storage capacities.

Kingston DataTraveler Ultimate GT

When it comes to sub drives, Kingston has earned the reputation of producing record breakers. In 2017, when the manufacturer released the Ultimate that comes in 1TB and 2TB capacities, it seems that they have outdone themselves again. The staggering capacity of the DataTraveler Ultimate GT should make most users look past its chunkiness.

Shipped in a silver metal case, the Kingston Ultimate GT 2TB USB 3.1 flash drive is available in 1 or 2TB capacities, comes with a blue USB 3.1 Gen 1 cable and Kingston branded black mesh carry bag, and it is capable of speeds up to 300MB/s read and 200MB/s write.

(Via: http://www.thessdreview.com/featured/kingston-ultimate-gt-2tb-flash-drive-review-space/)

Western Digital SanDisk Ultra Dual Drive Luxe

A new line of SanDisk Ultra Drive Luxes was introduced in January 2020’s CES event, and with capacities of up to 1TB, it has established itself as one of the biggest flash drives in terms of capacity. It’s also USB-C, which makes it a speedy and powerful machine. But those owning laptops that don’t have USB-C yet need not fret as the flash drive is also compatible with USB-A drives too.

Indeed, it features a dual USB connectivity: on one side, there is a USB Type-C connector, and if you flip it 180°, there is a traditional USB Type-A connector. The design of the SanDisk 1TB Ultra Dual Drive Luxe is smart.

(Via: https://www.cinema5d.com/sandisk-shows-a-8tb-portable-ssd-prototype-1tb-ultra-dual-drive-luxe-usb-flash-drive/)

Patriot Supersonic Rage

Patriot, maker of various computer-related devices including gaming keyboards, headsets, solid state drives, and mice are no slouches when it comes to producing flash drives. The Supersonic Rage has an Elite variant that comes with a 1TB capacity, making it one of the largest, but also most affordable flash drives.

While the GTX is the high performance play (topping out at 256GB), the GS is more of a capacity play (the top end version has 512GB of flash memory).

(Via: https://www.anandtech.com/show/9573/corsair-flash-voyager-gs-usb-30-512gb-flash-drive-capsule-review)

Corsair Flash Voyager GS

The Corsair Flash Voyager GS USB 3.0 combines reliable speed with the largest capacity of any flash drive from the manufacturer. Housed in sleek metal alloy, its recorded read and write speeds are up to 290 MB/s when used in USB 3.0 ports or higher.

Then, there’s the little known fact that it is an extremely fast drive, one of the fastest on the market with a read speed of up to 400MBps and a write speed of up to 300MBps.

(Via: https://www.techradar.com/news/the-cheapest-1tb-usb-flash-drive-in-the-world-is-also-one-of-the-fastest)

PNY Pro

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How to Run and Schedule Ansible Playbook Using AWX GUI

Our previous article we had already demonstrated the installation steps of Ansible AWX on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8. Ansible AWX is free and open source version Red Hat Ansible Tower. It provides a Graphical user interface, Rest API and Ansible task engine.

In this article we will through some lights on the basic usage of Ansible AWX GUI and how we can run and schedule Ansible Playbooks using this tool.

Lab Details for AWX GUI,

  • 192.168.1.6     // Already Installed Ansible AWX system (CentOS 8)
  • 192.168.1.9    // Ansible Client (CentOS 7)
  • 192.168.1.10   // Ansible Client (Ubuntu 18.04)
  • Time Synching of all the machines with NTP Servers
  • sysadm user with sudo rights

Let’s jump into the steps of AWX basic Usage and running Ansible playbooks via AWX GUI,

Step 1) Setup Keys based authentication among Ansible AWX Node and its clients

As we are using sysadm user, so we will be exchanging the ssh keys of this user from Ansbile AWX system to ansible clients.

I am assuming sysadm user is already created on these systems and have the sudo rights. Use below commands to generate SSH keys for sysadm user from AWX Node and share its public keys to ansible clients using ssh-copy-id command,

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-keygen

sysadm-user-keys

Now copy the public key of sysadm user to clients

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-copy-id [email protected]
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-copy-id [email protected]

Verify Whether Keys based authentication has been setup properly or not, run the following commands,

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh  [email protected] "hostname;exit" 
centos7 
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh  [email protected] "hostname;exit" 
Ubuntu-18-04 
[[email protected] ~]$

Step 2) Create an Organization in AWX GUI

Login to Ansible AWX GUI and go to Organization Tab and create an organization by clicking on “+” symbol,

AWX-Organizations-Tab

Next we will be prompted to enter Organization Name,

Ansible-AWX-CREATE-ORGANIZATION

Click on Save

Step 3) Create a Project and Assign Organization to it

Before creating a project, let’s first create project’s directory where we will store all ansible playbooks, go to cli console of AWX node and run,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo mkdir /var/lib/awx/projects/automation

Now Create a sample playbook to install bind-utils packages on CentOS and Ubuntu Systems,

[[email protected] ~]$ cd /var/lib/awx/projects/automation/
[[email protected] automation]$ sudo vi example.yaml
---
- hosts: all
  gather_facts: true
  become: true
  tasks:
    - yum:
        name: bind-utils
      when: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"
    - apt:
        name: dnsutils
      when: ansible_os_family == "Debian"

Save and exit the file,

Now Go to AWX GUI, Select Projects Tab and then click on + sign to create a new Project and specify the name of project that suits to your setup and specify other details like Organizations as “LINUXTECHI”, SCM Type as “Manual”, Project Base Path as “/var/lib/projects” and Playbook Directory as “automation

Create-Project-Ansible-AWX

Click on Save

Step 4) Create Credentials and add private key and other details

These credentials will be used while executing the playbooks on target ansible clients. To get contents of SSH private key of sysadm user, run the following command:

[[email protected] ~]$ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Now, Select Credentials Tab and Click on ‘+’ sign to create credentials and choose Credentials type as “Machine“, Choose Organization as “LINUXTECHI“, Username as “sysadm” and Paste Private Key of sysadm user in “SSH Private Key” Section, Choose ‘Privilege

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Is Your Browser Promoting Your Privacy?

With the number of people using the Internet in the millions, online privacy has been one concern that has never been more important. Fortunately, a good number of today’s browsers have been implementing changes to ensure its users that they are serious in providing them with more online privacy.

The most used browsers have come up with a number of tools to help in protecting you from first-party (used for things such as retaining your login information) and third-party (mainly used by advertisers to get information and track your behavior online) tracking cookies. Other efforts are directed towards fingerprinting, which tracks you by collecting details about your system configuration, which are then turned into your “fingerprint.”

Firefox introduces enhanced tracking protection

Trackers have already been blocked by Firefox way back September 2019. The browser utilizes Enhanced Tracking Protection, a customizable feature. This feature blocks trackers on a list of known trackers called the Disconnect list, which means not every third-party tracker is blocked. However, cookies that track across sites are also blocked by Firebox’s feature.

You can check if Enhanced Tracking Protection is enabled by checking the small shield icon to the left of the address bar. If the icon is purple, Firefox is blocking trackers. If it’s gray, there are no trackers to block. If it’s gray and crossed out, tracking protection is disabled for that site.

(Via: https://www.theverge.com/2020/2/7/21121202/firefox-privacy-tools-private-network-browser-settings)

What has Chrome done?

Chrome’s December release, Version 79, was all about improved security of passwords. In February’s update, Version 80 sees a new system for sorting cookies and blocking them from being slowly implemented. While first-party cookies are still allowed, third-party ones would need to have a same-site setting, ensuring that secure connections are used to access the sites.

Google also says that Chrome will phase out third-party cookies in two years in favor of an alternative system to cookies using new technologies Google is developing.

(Via: https://www.theverge.com/2020/2/11/21126427/google-chrome-privacy-tools-private-network-browser-settings)

On the edge, but secure

Not to be outdone by Chrome and Firefox, Microsoft’s latest update of its Edge browser has user privacy as a priority. Many have praised the new Edge’s privacy settings that are allegedly easier to use and understand compared to Chrome’s. Edge’s privacy settings are so powerful that users are being asked by the websites to disable their ad blockers even though they don’t have one installed. That means that the privacy settings of Edge can be an ad block in disguise.

Edge offers a one-click-to-fix experience that’s easy for anyone to control the degree of privacy they want while browsing the web. That’s to say, it’s quick and easy if you don’t really know what to look for, and you’re simply looking to be left alone by trackers – a basic method to browse the web without being, well, tracked.

(Via: https://www.businessinsider.sg/microsoft-edge-privacy-ad-blocker-google-chrome-comparison-2020-1/)

Chrome and its eventual separation from cookies

However, in a rather surprising move, Google announced in January that its Chrome browser will be supporting cookies in 2022 anymore. This is quite the opposite of their stance only months ago when they promoted their Privacy Sandbox initiative, which was pro-cookies and anti-browser fingerprinting.

Google’s decision to remove cookies from its browser comes with a couple of caveats. “Some browsers have reacted to …

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Take Your Pick From the Best File Sending Apps and Services

Whether for work or for friends and family, we usually must share documents and files. The thing is, there are a lot of cases when what we share is larger than what our email services allow us to attach.

Take note that for these recommendations, we have to consider those three factors: (1) The service has to send the files fast, or at a speed that most, if not all of us are accustomed to. It’s the speed that we expect from these services – once we’ve told mom that we’ve already sent the files, all she needs to do is log in and click the link on her email so that she could download the file from her end. (2) The service has to be secure – not prone to hacking and access by third parties, although most services and cloud drives can’t promise end-to-end encryption, or the practice of these services not having any access to your files at all, even for law enforcement. (3) Lastly, these services or apps need to be as flawless as possible. The fewer hiccups, the better, of course.

Dropbox

One of the more ubiquitous file-sharing services, Dropbox provides users with free storage (2 GB), as well as plans starting at 2TB for $12 monthly. It also offers some value-added services like file-sharing enabling across the web, files and folders syncing between devices and the cloud, file collaboration with those you’ve shared the file with, among others. A new app was also introduced to the market in January 2020.

However you feel about it, the new Dropbox will start rolling out to everyone today. Those shared folders are now “Dropbox Spaces” — a hub, effectively, built around your shared files.

(Via: https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/25/dropbox-will-start-rolling-out-the-new-dropbox-app-to-everyone-today/)

 

iCloud

iCloud, Apple’s cloud storage service, maybe a bit behind its file-sharing rivals, though there have been strides for the product’s improvement. A free 5 GB of iCloud storage comes with every Apple ID, and paid options start at $2 monthly for 50 GB. iCloud is best of course, just like with anything Apple, if you and your network of friends and family also use Apple software. If not, there can be hitches. In terms of security, full back up encryption has been dropped though, and it has been reported it is because of law enforcement pressure.

Reuters is reporting that Apple made the decision not to let users create and store personal encryption keys for iCloud Backup under pressure from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(Via: https://tidbits.com/2020/01/21/apple-allegedly-dropped-full-icloud-backup-encryption-under-fbi-pressure/)

 

OneDrive   

Microsoft cloud storage, One Drive, aims to be as permeating as other products of its parent company. Thus, for those who work extensively with MS Word, Excel, and other Windows and Office programs, OneDrive as your file sharing platform of choice makes perfect sense. 5 GB is given for free, with the most affordable option at $2/month for 100 GB. Microsoft also offers a $7 package with 1 TB storage and Office 365 included.

Personal Vault is an area of storage that can only be accessed with a second step of identification, be that a fingerprint, face, PIN, or code. It’s also limited access, meaning if you unlock it and become inactive for a short period of …

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How to Use Ansible Vault to Secure Sensitive Data

Ansible is a fantastic automation and orchestration tool popular among many developers owing to its simplicity and ease of use. One of the most important features that comes with Ansible is the Ansible Vault. As you would guess it by now, Ansible vault is a security feature that is used for encrypting or securing sensitive information in playbooks or files instead of having them in plain text which would pose a significant threat in the event of a breach. Such data includes passwords, API tokens and SSL certificates to mention a few. You can encrypt entire playbook YAML files of a string within the playbook with sensitive information such as a password.

In this guide, we look at various ways that Ansible vault can help you lock down your sensitive or confidential information and keep snoopers at bay.

Create an Encrypted File using Ansible Vault

Ansible vault uses the ansible-vault command line utility tool for encrypting sensitive information using the AES256 algorithm. This provides symmetric encryption which is embedded to a defined password. A user can use the same password to either encrypt or decrypt files in order to access content.

To create an encrypted file, use the ansible-vault utility tool as shown

$ ansible-vault create file.yml

For example, to create a file, call it secret_file.yml, run the command

$ ansible-vault create secret_file.yml

ansible-vault-create-file

You will be prompted to provide a new vault password. Key in your preferred password and confirm. Once you have confirmed the password , vim editor will be launched.

Thereafter, type the file content that you wish to be encrypted by Ansible vault and save the file. Below is some sample text.

Hello, this is my secret file

When you view the file, you will discover that it has already been encrypted using AES256 algorithm as shown.

$ vim secret_file.yml

view-ansible-vault-encrypted-file

Edit an Encrypted File with Ansible Vault

To make changes to an already existing file which is encrypted use the syntax:

$ ansible-vault edit file.yml

From our sample file that we created earlier on, the command for editing the file would be:

$ ansible-vault edit secret_file.yml

Again, you will be prompted for the vault password, and after providing it, you will be granted access to the file to make modifications.

Edit-ansible-vault-encrypted-file

View an Encrypted File

To have a peek at an encrypted file, use the syntax:

$ ansible-vault view file.yml

Using our file, the command will therefore be

$ ansible-vault view secret_file.yml

Ansible-vault-view-file

Encrypt an Existing File using Ansible Vault

Suppose you want to encrypt an already existing file which is unencrypted, say an inventory file. How would you go about it? To achieve this, use the syntax:

$ ansible-vault encrypt file.yml

For example, to encrypt a file file1.yml  execute the command:

$ ansible-vault encrypt file1.yml

Specify the vault password and confirm it to encrypt the file.

Encrypt-file-ansible-vault

Decrypt a File using Ansible Vault

To decrypt a file and revert to plain text, run the command:

$ ansible-vault decrypt file1.yml

If all went well, you will get a ‘Decryption successful’ message. You can now use the cat command to view the contents of the file.

Decrypt-ansible-vault-file

Reset Ansible vault Password

Also, you can reset or change the Vault’s password. This is done using the rekey option in the ansible …

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5 Common Problems of Hosting Providers

In 2020, you can host a website without being tech-savvy. Finding a reasonably priced hosting will not be a problem for most people. But while finding a hosting is easy, finding a really good one may take some time. Many people have to change hosting one or two times before they find the company that […]

Source

from ThisHosting.Rocks https://thishosting.rocks/5-common-problems-of-hosting-providers/…

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