Servers

Take Advantage of User Profiles

With how our internet lives almost depend on it, we may think we already know all there is to know about our web browser. However, there’s one feature of it that gets pretty much ignored, if not taken for granted. You know what user profiles are, but chances are high you overlook this feature, not giving it the time of day and not utilizing it to its full potential. The thing is, most browsers, whether you’re using Chrome, Firefox, Opera, or Edge, allow multiple user profiles that can make your web browsing experience all the more enjoyable. Once you get the hang of using user profiles, you will wonder why you didn’t use it before.

As the name implies, user profiles allow separate browser profiles for different users, exactly like how you can have different user accounts when you log into Windows. The difference is that this is working at the browser level, so there’s no need to log in and out of the user accounts set up on your OS. What profiles do is that they separate the stuff different users collect as they use the browser to surf the web. This information includes saved passwords, browsing history, installed extensions, and bookmarks, among other things. This allows you and whoever may user your laptop separate browsing experiences. Take note though, that user profile switching in browsers can be done easily, so having a separate user profile is not a guarantee of your browsing life’s privacy.

What’s more, you as a user can have multiple user profiles. You can have a work profile and personal profile, which lets you keep your two worlds separate. When you serve for leisure using your personal profile, for example, you won’t be bothered with anything work-related like bookmarks and suggestions.

On Chrome

Chrome is the most popular web browser in the world currently, but not a lot of its users take advantage of creating their user profiles. What’s great about doing this on Google is that you can actually have not just one, but multiple user profiles.

If you use Google Chrome as your main browser, you probably didn’t know it, but you can create multiple profiles. You may want to do this to share your device with other people without the need to create a new Windows 10 account.

Also, the ability to use multiple profiles can come in handy if you have more than one account, and you want to keep your things (such as work and personal) separate.

(Via: https://pureinfotech.com/add-new-user-profiles-google-chrome/)

 

On Microsoft Edge

The new updates of Microsoft Edge have continuously excited netizens, thanks to its newly introduced Chromium engine. With the change comes convenience, as it is now way easier to use a new user profile in Microsoft Edge, with process comparable to that of Google Chrome’s. But of course, you will need to have the new Edge Chromium installed.

When you install the new Edge browser, your user profile will default to a standard profile called “Profile 1” with no personalization. Signing in to your Microsoft account will link this profile to your account, allowing you to share bookmarks and settings across devices.

(Via: https://www.howtogeek.com/525303/how-to-use-multiple-user-profiles-in-microsoft-edge/)

 

On Mozilla Firefox

It used to be that profile making …

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Don’t Be Scammed on Your Phone

Phones these days are ubiquitous to the point that our lives are quite tied to them. Our phone has our social media accounts, which means our social network is with then, as well as online banking, shopping, and delivery, which means our addresses and places of work are in our phones as well. This is why keeping our phones and the information they hold secure and safe is of utmost importance.

However, we cannot stop unscrupulous people from trying to victimize unsuspecting phone users. By hacking into your phone, they get your information as you may end up swiped of all your money, not to mention your identity may also be duplicated. So, without further ado, here are the common scams on your phone and ways you may stop them.

 

Phones can also be “phished”

We usually associate the term “phishing” with email, but crafty cybercriminals have expanded their activities to include instant messaging and SMS, too. In other words, various electronic communication methods can also victimize you on your phone, and before you know it, a stranger can access your device.

Security researchers have discovered a phishing campaign that specifically targets users of Android devices, which could result in compromise if unsigned Android applications are permitted on the device.

The campaign seeks to deliver Anubis, a malware that was originally used for cyber-espionage, now retooled as a banking trojan. Anubis can completely hijack an Android mobile device, steal data, record phone calls, and even hold the device to ransom by encrypting the victim’s personal files, said a blog post by researchers at Cofense.

(Via: https://www.scmagazineuk.com/phishing-attack-infects-android-phones-anubis-infostealer/article/1673350)

 

More on “smishing”

In fact, there is already a word specifically for smartphone phishing – smishing. Recipients do not get a scam email, but instead a scammy text message on your smartphone. In a new wave of smishing scams, text messages allegedly from FedEx contains a tracking code with a link that allegedly lets you “set delivery preferences.”

If you tap that link on your phone (and you shouldn’t), you’ll end up on a fake Amazon site (a phishing site) with a fraudulent “free reward.” The site will request your credit card information for “shipping fees.” If you provide payment details, you’ll be billed $98.95 every month.

(Via: https://www.howtogeek.com/526115/what-is-smishing-and-how-do-you-protect-yourself/)

 

Smartphone fake calls

Of course, instead of messages, there are some scammers that result in good ol’ call. What sounds like a legitimate call can turn out to be a scam with you already giving away sensitive information. Also, there have been an increase in the number of scammers posing as FBI or government agents trying to extract information from unsuspecting people who answer their calls.

But, anyone can fake or spoof a number and make it show up on your smartphone. If you let the call go to voicemail, when you listen, you will know it is a fake call if the caller is making threats of arrest or demanding money.

(Via: https://www.winknews.com/2020/01/29/how-do-i-know-if-a-phone-call-is-spam-a-former-fbi-agent-says-how/)

 

The SIM Swap

A SIM swap scam happens when someone imitates you and convinces your carrier to redirect your number to theirs by requesting from the carrier to activate a SIM card that is under the control of the impersonator. If not used to …

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How to Boot Ubuntu 20.04 LTS in Rescue / Emergency Mode

There are some circumstances like where Linux user forget his / her password, or filesystem got corrupted or want to fix /etc/fstab errors, so to resolve these issues Linux geeks must boot their system into rescue mode or emergency mode. Rescue mode in Ubuntu Linux is also known as single user mode.
In this article we will demonstrate how to boot your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system into a rescue mode and emergency mode.

Booting Ubuntu 20.04 LTS into Rescue Mode (Single User Mode)

1) Reboot the system and go to grub bootloader screen

During the boot, press ‘ESC’ key to go to bootloader screen,

Grub-BootLoader-Screen-Ubuntu20-04

Choose first option “Ubuntu” and then press ‘e’ key to edit

2) Append the string “systemd.unit=rescue.target” to the line which starts with ‘linux’ word.

Note: Before appending the string remove the word “$vt_handoff” if it exist in the line which begins with “linux”

Systemd-rescue-method-ubuntu20-04-lts

3) Now Press ‘CTRL-x’ or F10 to boot the system in rescue or single user mode.

In the following screen, press enter and run your troubleshooting steps and commands to recover your system. In my case, I have reset forgotten password of user “pkumar” and verify the entries of /etc/fstab file.

We can run almost all the commands here as all the file systems are mounted in read-write mode. Once you are done with troubleshooting steps, use ‘systemctl reboot’ command to restart the system.

Reset-Password-Rescue-Mode-Ubuntu-20-04-LTS

Booting Ubuntu 20.04 LTS in Emergency Mode

In emergency mode, all the files system of a Linux system are mounted in read-only mode. This mode is generally used in the situations where we can’t boot the system in rescue mode, may be due to some file system corruptions.

Refer below steps to boot Ubuntu 20.04 in emergency mode:

1) Reboot Your system and go to Grub Bootloader Screen

Grub-BootLoader-Screen-Ubuntu20-04

2) Press ‘e’ and look for the line which begins with “linux” word and append string “systemd.unit=emergency.target

emergency-mode-ubuntu-20-04

Now press “Ctrl-x” or F10 to enter into emergency mode

Entering-into-emergency-mode-ubuntu-20-04

Here you can try repairing the file system and do other troubleshooting steps. If you want to mount / (slash root) in read-write mode then issue the following command,

# mount -o remount,rw /

After executing all the troubleshooting steps, reboot the system by issuing the command “systemctl reboot

Commands-Emergency-mode-Ubuntu-20-04

That’s conclude the article. I hope these steps helps you to boot your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system into rescue and emergency mode. You can share your feedback and comments in the comment section below.

from Linuxtechi https://www.linuxtechi.com/boot-ubuntu-20-04-rescue-emergency-mode/…

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How to Setup NFS Server on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

An acronym for Network File Share, NFS is a cross-platform client/server protocol that allows clients machines to access files shared by the NFS server over a network. Client systems can locally mount the filesystems from the NFS server and access files and directories as though they were locally mounted. In this guide, we will walk you through the installation and configuration of NFS Server on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8.

Note: In CentOS 8 or RHEL 8 NFSv3 & v4 both are supported. NFSv3 allows safe asynchronous write and supports 64-bit file sizes & offset. Whereas NFSv4 works through OS firewall and support ACL (Access Control List) and doesn’t require rpcbind service

NFS Server/Client setup

Before we get started, we are going to use the setup below to simulate how the NFS protocol works in a client/server setup.

  • Server machine IP: address:   192.168.2.102         CentOS 8
  • Client machine  IP: address:   192.168.2.103         CentOS 8

With our setup at hand, let’s begin the installation of NFS on the server machine.

Step 1) Install and Configure NFS on the CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 server

To begin, we will install the NFS server package called nfs-utils which acts as the NFS daemon. To install the nfs-utils package, launch the terminal and run the command:

$ sudo dnf install nfs-utils -y

In the example below, nfs-utils is already installed.

nfs-server-install-centos8

Once the installation is complete, start and enable the nfs-server service so it will be automatically across the reboots. Run the following commands,

$ sudo systemctl start nfs-server.service
$ sudo systemctl enable nfs-server.service

Start-Enable-NFS-Server-Service-CentOS8

To confirm that NFS service is running, execute:

$ sudo systemctl status nfs-server.service

Verify-NFS-Server-Service-Status-CentOS8

You can verify the version of nfs protocol that you are running by executing the command:

$ rpcinfo -p | grep nfs

The version is indicated by the second column in the output presented below.

rpcinfo-nfs-CentOS8-RHEL8

For additional configuration of the NFS server, you can find the configuration files at /etc/nfs.conf which is the NFS daemon config file and the /etc/nfsmount.conf which is the configuration file for the NFS mount.

Step 2) Creating and exporting NFS share

In this step, we are going to create a file system that will be shared from the server to client systems. In this guide, we will create a directory at /mnt/nfs_share/docs as shown below

$ sudo mkdir -p /mnt/nfs_share/docs

NFS-Shared-Directory-CentOS8-RHEL8

To avoid file restrictions on the NFS share directory, it’s advisable to configure directory ownership as shown. This allows creation of files from the client systems without encountering any permission issues.

$ sudo chown -R nobody: /mnt/nfs_share/docs

Also, you can decide to adjust the directory permissions according to your preference. For instance, in this guide, we will assign all the permissions (read , write and execute) to the NFS share folder

$ sudo chmod -R 777 /mnt/nfs_share/docs

Permissions-NFS-Shared-Directory-CentOS8-RHEL8

For the changes to come into effect, restart the NFS daemon:

$ sudo systemctl restart nfs-utils.service

To export the NFS share so that client systems can access it, we need to edit the /etc/exports file. You can allow multiple clients access to the share by specifying a subnet as shown

/mnt/nfs_shares/docs   192.168.2.0/24(rw,sync,no_all_squash,root_squash

Also, you can specify each client on a separate line:

/mnt/nfs_shares/docs  client-IP(rw,sync,no_all_squash,root_squash)

/mnt/nfs_shares/docs  client-IP(rw,sync,no_all_squash,root_squash)

Using our setup, we will grant access to our client machine …

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How to Clean Up Your Cookies in 4 Browsers +1

Cookies can be a good thing when you’re talking about satisfying your sweet tooth. But for our online lives, it can be both a good and bad thing. Cookies in internet-speak happen when web browsers write these short text files containing information about your interaction about specific sites. Your log-ins, usernames, and things you may have purchased on retail websites would be included in these cookies. Having cookies is supposed to make your web surfing life more convenient as they make loading times for websites you frequent faster. Moreover, you don’t have to keep on typing in your information every time you try to log in a site, as the cookies have your information ready.

Quite harmless, right? But then, these cookies tend to accumulate, taking up space on your system. Moreover, with the current situation of heightened privacy and security concerns, cookies aren’t particularly the poster kids of web safety. Advertisers have access to these cookies, which is why you may notice the same things you look for on the internet get advertised to you on your social media and email accounts. Thus, removing them on a schedule is recommended.

If you’re the type of web user who is security conscious, then we have something for you: Steps on clearing your cookies depending on the web browser you’re using.

Google Chrome

The most popular web browser makes it easy for you to delete cookies, control the data that comes out when you are browsing data, and point out which files are accepted or should be blocked. However, take note that Google will be doing away with cookies in two years.

Like other browsers, Google Chrome tracks your history — but you can easily clear that history.

You can clear your browsing history in Google Chrome in just a few simple steps by accessing the “History” menu. You can choose to delete your history from the last hour, day, week, or month. You can also clear all of your history since you started using Google Chrome.

(Via: https://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-clear-history-on-google-chrome)

 

Mozilla Firefox

The browser more known for its add-ons, the open-source browser Firefox is one of, if not the most, customizable web browsers when it comes to privacy settings.

The open-source browser has tons of add-ons and actually offers more options than Chrome when it comes to customizing these settings. Here’s what you need to know to clear the cookies it stores.

Visit any web page and click on the Cookie Quick Manager button on the Firefox toolbar to view the add-on’s menu; it displays six options. The first one is Manage All Cookies which opens the manager dashboard in a new tab in the browser. The dashboard lists each and every cookie that has been stored by your browser. Use the search bar to quickly find a particular website’s cookie to manage it.

(Via: https://www.ghacks.net/2020/01/18/cookie-quick-manager-is-a-firefox-extension-that-lets-you-search-delete-protect-site-specific-cookies/)

 

Safari

In the interest of fairness, of course, we have to also talk about the built-in web browser for Macs. The biggest difference for Safari on the topic of cookies is that the cookies it stores are only from your visited websites. The process of wiping out cookies from Safari is pretty easy and straightforward as well.

It’s a straightforward process to

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Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) Server Installation Guide

On 23rd April 2020, Canonical has released its latest Ubuntu Operating system as “Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa)”. It has been released for desktop and Servers. In this article we demonstrate Ubuntu 20.04 LTS server installation steps with screenshots. Before initiating the Installation process, let’s see what are new features that have been included in this release.

Following are the new features that have been noticed in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server,

  • As it is an LTS release Canonical will provide updates and support for next 5 years (until April 2025) and 10 years of security provided under the UA-I subscription.
  • Two Factor authentication for SSH.
  • Flexible Bootloader – In the Previous LTS release Ubuntu installer used to write bootloader on a single disk whereas in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS bootloader can be written on multiple disks to avoid single point of failure.
  • Introduction of WireGuard VPN
  • Automatic Updates via Ubuntu Server Live Installer.
  • New Kernel 5.4
  • Updated Software like QEMU 4.2, libvirt 6.0, PHP 7.4, Ruby 2.7, GCC 9.3, Python 3.8, and NGINX 1.17

Minimum System Requirements for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server:

  • 4 GB Memory (RAM)
  • Dual Core Processor
  • 25 GB Hard Disk Space
  • Bootable Media (USB / DVD)
  • Stable Internet Connection

Let’s assume I have server which has 80 GB hard disk on which I will install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS server.

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server Installations Step

Step 1) Download Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server ISO file

Download ISO file of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS server using following URL:

https://ubuntu.com/download/server

Once ISO file is downloaded on your system then make a bootable USB drive or DVD using tools like Rufus(Windows) and and Startup Disk Creator & Unetbootin ( Ubuntu Desktop)

Step 2) Boot target system using bootable media (USB / DVD)

Reboot the target system on which you want to install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS server and go to its bios settings and change boot medium from disk to bootable media (USB or DVD).

Once the system boots up, we will get the following screen:

Language-Selection-Ubuntu-20-04-Server-Installation

Choose your installation language and then hit enter

Step 3) Choose Keyboard Layout and then press enter

Choose your preferred keyboard layout for your Ubuntu 20.04 server and then choose “Done” option and hit enter,

Choose-Keyboard-Layout-Ubuntu20-04-Installation

Step 4) Configure Network and Ubuntu Archive Mirror

If your system is connected to the network, then in the next screen you will see that interface (Ethernet Card) has automatically pick the ip via DHCP.

In case you have multiple Ethernet cards then you have option to create a bond interface,

Configure-Network-During-Ubuntu-20-04-LTS-Server-Installation

Choose Done and hit enter.

If your system is connected to network and running behind the proxy server (i.e for getting internet), then specify the proxy IP and ports else leave as it is and press enter.

proxy-address-during-ubuntu-20-04-server-installation

In the next screen, based on the country location. Installer will automatically configure Ubuntu archive mirror.

Ubuntu-Archive-mirror-ubuntu-20-04-lts-server

Press Enter to proceed,

Step 5) Configure Storage Layout for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server

In this step, you will be presented a screen where you need to decide how you want to configure storage layout for Ubuntu 20.04 lts server installation. Here you have two options,

  • Use an entire disk – In case, you want installer to automatically create partitions for you the choose option.
  • Custom
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How to Dual Boot Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Along with Windows 10

A dual boot setup is a setup that allows users to have multiple operating systems installed on a single hard drive, each independent of each other. Each operating system has its own set of software and drivers which allows it to access the hardware components of the PC and other peripheral devices. During the booting process, users can select the operating system they’d like to boot into without affecting the other.

In this topic, you will learn how to dual boot Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) along with Windows 10.

Requirements for Dual Boot:

Before getting started, ensure you have the following:

  • A bootable USB / DVD medium of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
  • A fast and stable internet connection

This article also assumes that you have a copy of Windows 10 already installed locally on your PC.

Step 1) Create a free partition on Windows 10

Before proceeding to install Ubuntu, we are going to create a free partition which we shall use later in this guide to install Ubuntu 20.04. We need to access the “Device Manager” in Windows to create a new partition.

So, open the ‘Run’ dialogue by pressing Windows Key + R. Type diskmgmt.msc and hit ENTER.

Windows-Disk-Manager-Command

This opens the ‘Disk management’ window that displays all the disks attached to the PC and partitioned volumes. From the image below, you can clearly see that we have 1 hard disk with 1 partition labelled (C:)

Disk-Management-Windows10

To create a separate partition for Ubuntu, we need to shrink this volume and create an unallocated space. So, right click on the volume and select ‘Shrink’ as shown:

Shrink-Disk-Option-Windows10

From the pop-up window, provide the amount of space in MB that you need to create for the free partition and click on the ‘Shrink’ button. Here, we have defined 35480 MB which is roughly 35 GB.

Shrink-Size-Windows10

Give Windows a few seconds to create an unallocated space. After it’s finished, the partition will be displayed as shown below. This is the partition that we are going to install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS on it.

Unallocated-Space-After-Shrink-Windows10

With the ‘unallocated’ partition in place, plug your bootable flash drive or insert the DVD installation medium into your PC and restart your system.

Step 2) Begin the booting process

It’s prudent to pop into the BIOS settings and reorder the boot priority settings so that the system boots into your installation medium first. Depending on the vendor, the BIOS settings can be accessed by pressing F10, F9, F12 , or by hitting the ESC key. Once you are done making changes to the boot priority, save and exit the BIOS settings.

Upon booting, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS will scan your hard drive and start performing file system integrity checks as shown.

Bootable-drive-ubuntu20-04-lts

Once the filesystem checks are completed, you’ll be presented with 2 options below. The first option – Try Ubuntu – allows you to give Ubuntu 20.04 a test run and explore its features. Since we are interested in installing it in the system, click on the second option – Install Ubuntu.

Click-Install-Ubuntu-20-04-LTS

Step 3) Select the keyboard layout for your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Next, select the preferred Keyboard Layout and click on ‘Continue

Select-Keyboard-Layout-Ubuntu-20-04-desktop

Step 4)

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What Browser Will Go Well With Windows 10?

The internet browser is one piece of software that is so commonly used but also oftentimes overlooked and underappreciated. Whether we spend most of our lives online checking our social media accounts or trying to see what’s the best steals on Amazon, or passing the time by getting into a YouTube rabbit hole of cat videos, we heavily rely on a trusty browser to give us what we need. But then, choosing one to stick to can be difficult, as there is quite a number that goes well with the latest version of Windows 10.

But then, with our needs of browsing through various websites ably performed by most if not all web browsers available today, what should set the wheat apart from the proverbial chaff? The name of the web browser game these days has shifted to other factors such as user security, user privacy, functionality, and customization. That is why we have come up with this list – to make sure you have the right browser to what you prioritize as most important to your web surfing experience.

UR Browser

The UR Browser was, like most web browsers available these days, developed based on the Chromium open-source project. But then, it sets itself apart from being just another version of Chrome as it offers the user various built-in tools, with strengthened safety and privacy features for the user. With so many users putting a lot of importance in the security and privacy of their online lives, UR Browser answers that need very well, along with its other benefits such as reliability and intuitiveness.

What is UR Browser, you may ask? The simple answer is that UR Browser is a cross-platform web navigator or web browser based on Chromium and created by AdaptiveBee, with security, privacy and friendly user interface in mind.

Another way to look at it is that UR Browser is more than a simple navigator. It won’t just help you browse the web seamlessly.

(Via: https://windowsreport.com/ur-browser-review/)

 

Google Chrome

Who doesn’t know Google Chrome? Who hasn’t used it even just once in their online existence? It’s currently the undisputed leader when it comes to the number of users and how they have grown so accustomed to using it. Since Chrome is preinstalled on smartphones and Android is still stronger compared to iOS in terms of user numbers, it’s no doubt that it has become ubiquitous.

Google’s Chrome browser is the most popular browser in the world, but it’s also notorious for gobbling up RAM and battery life faster than market share – but it looks like Microsoft has found a way to reduce its battery consumption – on Windows 10 devices, at least.

(Via: https://www.techradar.com/news/chrome-may-soon-be-less-of-a-battery-guzzler-in-windows-10-thanks-to-microsoft)

 

Mozilla Firefox

Through its existence, Firefox has often been considered the best and most valuable alternative to Google Chrome. Its reputation has been solid in terms of its speed and reliability, but it is most known for the massive number of extensions it has. When you need your browser to do something, trust Firefox to have an extension that will do that exactly. Because of that, many regard Firefox as Chrome’s worthiest competitor.

However, it seems that Windows 10 is not playing nicely as it has suggested on …

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Top 14 Things to do After Installing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

On April 23rd, 2020, the Canonical team released the much-anticipated Ubuntu 20.04 release. The latest release takes over from its predecessor Ubuntu 18.04 LTS and ships with a new and sleek desktop theme, an improved overall look-and-feel, Linux kernel 5.4, ZFS file system support and tons of hardware improvements and software enhancements. Ubuntu 20.04 is a Long-Term Service (LTS) release, and as with any LTS release, it will be supported for 5 years until 2025.

After installing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS on your system, here are some of the top 14 things that you should consider doing before you fully start using your system.

1) Install Latest Package Updates

It’s always a good idea, after installing a new Linux system, to update the system packages and repositories. This helps you to start working with the latest system packages and security updates. Therefore, to refresh your system and update system packages, run the command:

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

2) Customize the appearance / look-and-feel 

Since the release of Ubuntu 18.10, the default theme for Ubuntu has always been the sleek and neat Yaru theme. This time around, the Canonical team amped up their efforts and decided to ship 3 variants of the Yaru theme complete with a set of polished icons. The variants of the Yaru theme are light, standard, and dark. By default, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS runs the standard version of the Yaru theme.

Appearance-Ubuntu20-04-LTS

A switch to the dark theme gives you the appearance shown below:

Yaru-Theme-Mode-Ubuntu20-04-LTS

Furthermore, Ubuntu 20.04 packs with additional background images that you can apply to give your wallpaper a splash of color and enhance its appearance.

Ubuntu20-04-Wallpapers

Apart from the flexibility of switching between different themes and wallpaper options, users can play around with the dock settings and increase the size of icons.

Icon-Size-Change-Ubuntu20-04-LTS

3) Install GNOME tweak tool

GNOME tweaks, popularly referred to as the GNOME Tweak Tool, is a free customization tool that provides you with extended flexibility to further customize your GNOME desktop appearance, shell extensions,  windows settings, and Power settings to mention a few.

To install GNOME tweak tool run the command:

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install gnome-tweak-tool -y

Gnome-Tweaks-Ubuntu-20-04-LTS

4) Install Media codecs to enable playing of MPEG4 & other media files

By default, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, like other previous versions, doesn’t support playing media files such as MPEG4 and AVI. If you want to play such media files, you need to install the Ubuntu restricted extras package. This is a software package that comprises essential applications such as media codecs, Adobe flash & GStreamer. To install the Ubuntu restricted extras package, run the command below:

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install ubuntu-restricted-extras -y

On the EULA screen, use the tab key to accept the terms and conditions of the EULA and hit ENTER on the ‘Ok’ option.

Accept-Term-Condition-ttf-mscorefonts-ubuntu20-04

On the next screen, select ‘Yes’ to accept the license terms. Thereafter, the system will proceed to install the Ubuntu restricted extras package.

Accept-EULA-License-Ubuntu-20-04-LTS

5)  Enable and Configure Firewall (ufw)

Firewall (ufw) installed automatically when we install Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, but it is disabled by default. So enable it to make sure system secure.

[email protected]:~$ sudo ufw status
Status: inactive
[email protected]:~$

Run the following command to enable firewall,

[email protected]:~$ sudo ufw enable
Command 
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How to Upgrade Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Good news for Ubuntu users, Canonical has released Ubuntu 20.04 LTS on 23rd April 2020. As it is an LTS (Long Term Support) release so ubuntu users will keep getting updated and support till April 2025. So, it is worth to update your Ubuntu 18.04 LTS desktop to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa).

In this article we will demonstrate how to upgrade Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to 20.04 LTS. There are two ways to do it either via command line or GUI (Graphical Interface). To complete the upgrade smoothly, a stable internet is required on your Ubuntu system.

Upgrade Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to 20.04 LTS via Command Line

We strongly recommend please take backup of your existing Ubuntu 18.04 may be on some external drive.

Before start upgrading let’s take a not of exiting Ubuntu Version, open the terminal and run below command,

[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/lsb-release

We will get the output of above command something like below,

Check-Ubuntu-Version-before-upgrade

Let’s deep dive into upgradation steps

Step 1) Apply all updates of installed packages

Rub below apt command to install all the updates of installed packages,

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt update
[email protected]:~$ sudo apt upgrade -y

Once all the updates are installed including the kernel then reboot your system

[email protected]:~$ sudo reboot

Step 2) Remove unused Kernels and install ‘update-manager-core’

Once your Ubuntu 18.04 LTS desktop is available after reboot, then it is recommended to remove unused kernel to free up the space from /boot partition, run beneath command:

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt --purge autoremove

Execute below command to install “update-manager-core“, as it is required for upgrade, though on most of the system it should be installed by default. In case it is not installed run below command,

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install update-manager-core -y

Step 3) Start Upgrade Process

Run following command to view whether new 20.04 LTS version is available for your system.

[email protected]:~$ sudo do-release-upgrade

do-release-upgrade-Ubuntu18-04

If, in the above command’s output, you got a message that “There is no development version of an LTS available” then we can force the above command by passing the parameter “-d” to look for the new latest LTS version.

Now run the command to initiate the upgrade procedure,

[email protected]:~$ sudo do-release-upgrade -d

forcefully-upgrade-ubuntu18-04

During upgrade procedure, it will prompt you couple of times to type “y” to update package repositories and sometime “enter” to confirm to proceed with upgrade,

Enter-Y-During-Ubuntu-Upgrade

Once the upgrade procedure is completed successfully then we will get following message

Restart-Ubuntu-After-Upgrade

Above output confirms that upgrade is completed, upgrade tool prompted us to press ‘y’ to restart the system.

Step 4) Verify Upgrade

Once the system boots after the reboot, open the terminal type following to verify the Ubuntu version,

[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/lsb-release

Upgrade-Verify-Ubuntu-Linux

Another way to verify the Ubuntu version, Go to Settings and then choose About

Settings-About-Ubuntu-Linux

This confirms that we have successfully upgraded our Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to latest Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Upgrade Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to 20.04 LTS via GUI

Note: First and foremost, task is to take the backup of your Ubuntu 18.04 LTS desktop.

Step 1) Apply Updates of installed packages and reboot

Search “Updater” from search dash and access it by clicking on its icon,

Search-Software-Update-Ubuntu18

If the updates are available, then we will get …

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