Other Things To Consider When Buying A Mouse

You’ve done your research. You knew what you are looking for based on what you’ll use the mouse for. You’ve decided between a wireless mouse or a wired one. You’ve considered the dimension and the size. And of course, you’ve chosen the right shape and color for you (or maybe overlooked them because you decided they’re the last things to worry about). So now you might ask, can I proceed to the counter now? You can. If those are the only things you want to cover. Wait, there’s more? Yes. More specific criteria that is.


Mouse, like other parts of your computer, is still a machine. It has its technical and mechanical aspects. And if you are more on the picky side, then you might appreciate this article.


Sensors. The sensor type will depend on the manufacturer of the mouse.

From Razer’s “Dual Sensors” to Microsoft’s “BlueTrack” and Logitech’s “Darkfield,” advanced sensors offer a lot. On the gaming side of things, most companies offer calibration for different surfaces, insanely high DPI (covered later in this guide) and improved precision. And for the always-on-the-go office worker, some mice offer to work for you even on shiny surfaces like glass, marble and more.



The positioning of the sensors is also crucial. The sensors must be positioned in the center of the mouse.

The off-center sensor, however, resulted in extremely poor accuracy when making sharp flicks to the left or right.

Unless you are using your mouse for casual browsing only, do watch out for sensor placement. Look for a photo of the bottom of the mouse before your purchase. If the sensor is positioned too far from the center of the mouse – stay away!



Buttons. The different types and placements are vital as well. Again, it comes down to what you’ll use the mouse for.

Depending on how you use your mouse, you may need to consider the types of buttons and switches used. For late night web surfing or a busy office, you may want to consider a silent mouse. But for gaming or anything else where you really want to feel your clicks, you may want a mouse with more tactile feedback.

Aside from the feel of the buttons, there’s also the question of how many buttons you need. Some will be more than happy with a three button mouse (left, middle and right). Others… well, let’s just say they can never get enough.

Some advice when buying a mouse with more than three buttons is to make sure every button is easily within reach. If it takes you a few seconds to re-position your hand, it’s probably faster to use a keyboard shortcut instead. This will also have to do a lot with the size of the mouse and the way you hold it.



Like your gram is curated for you, a mouse should know what you need at the moment. Here’s when DPI and On-The-Fly Profiles come in.

People are smart – they change their behavior, attitude and looks based on different social situations. So why shouldn’t mice do the same with apps and games? Higher end mice (most notably gaming ones) often

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How to Create Affinity and Anti-Affinity Policy in OpenStack

In the organizations where the OpenStack is used aggressively, so in such organizations application and database teams can come up with requirement that their application and database instances are required to launch either on same compute nodes (hypervisor) or different compute nodes.


So, this requirement in OpenStack is fulfilled via server groups with affinity and anti-affinity policies. Server Group is used control affinity and anti-affinity rules for scheduling openstack instances.

When we try to provision virtual machines with affinity server group then all virtual machines will be launched on same compute node. When VMs are provisioned with ant-affinity server group then all VMs will be launched in different compute nodes. In this article we will demonstrate how to create OpenStack server groups with Affinity and Anti-Affinity rules.

Let’s first verify whether your OpenStack setup support Affinity and Anti-Affinity Policies or not, execute the following grep command from your controller nodes,

# grep -i "scheduler_default_filters" /etc/nova/nova.conf

Output should be something like below,


As we can see Affinity and Ant-Affinity filters are enabled but in case if these are not enabled then add these filters in /etc/nova/nova.conf  file of controller nodes under “scheduler_default_filters” parameters.

# vi /etc/nova/nova.conf

Save and exit the file

To make above changes into the effect, restart the following services

# systemctl restart openstack-nova-scheduler
# systemctl restart openstack-nova-conductor

Now let’s create OpenStack Server Groups with Affinity and Anti-Affinity Policies

Server Group with Affinity Policy

To create a server group with name “app” for affinity policy, execute the following openstack command from controller node,


# openstack server group create –policy affinity <Server-Group-Name>


# nova server-group-create <Server-Group-Name> affinity

Note: Before start executing openstack command, please make sure you source project credential file, in my case project credential file is “openrc


# source openrc
# openstack server group create --policy affinity app

Server Group with Anti-Affinity Policy

To create a server group with anti-affinity policy, execute the following openstack command from controller node, I am assuming server group name is “database”


# openstack server group create –policy anti-affinity <Server-Group-Name>


# nova server-group-create <Server-Group-Name> anti-affinity


# source openrc
# openstack server group create --policy anti-affinity database

List Server Group’s ID and Policies

Execute either nova command or Openstack command to get server group’s id and their policies

# nova server-group-list | grep -Ei "Policies|database"
# openstack server group list --long | grep -Ei "Policies|app|database"

Output would be something like below,


Launch Virtual Machines (VMs) with Affinity Policy

Let’s assume we want to launch 4 vms with affinity policy, run the following “openstack server create” command


# openstack server create –image <img-name> –flavor <id-or-flavor-name> –security-group <security-group-name> –nic net-id=<network-id> –hint group=<Server-Group-ID> –max <number-of-vms>  <VM-Name>


# openstack server create --image Cirros --flavor m1.small --security-group default --nic net-id=37b9ab9a-f198-4db1-a5d6-5789b05bfb4c --hint group="a9847c7f-b7c2-4751-9c9a-03b117e704ff" --max 4 affinity-test

Output of above command,


Let’s verify whether VMs are launched on same compute node or not, run following command

# openstack server list --long -c Name -c Status -c Host -c "Power State" | grep -i affinity-test


This confirms that our affinity policy is working fine as all the VMs are launched on same compute node.

Now let’s test anti-affinity policy


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The Basics Of Choosing The Best Computer Mouse

Can’t you just buy the first thing you see? After all, they all have a left clicker, a right clicker, and a scrolling wheel, right? Yes to the latter but no to the former. Much like choosing a computer, a smartphone, or even a camera, you have to consider what you will be using it for. The price and color can just come next.


Buying a mouse can be tricky especially online. You only get to see descriptions and pictures of it. There are reviews from some other people that have purchased and probably used it. But you simply can’t rely solely on them. How they use their mouse might be different from how you use yours. But how about going to a physical store? That would be easy right? Yes, it can, if you know what you are looking for. If you do your research before going to the store, finding a mouse would be much easier.


As mentioned, the first thing you should consider is what you will be using the mouse mostly for. It can be for work, gaming, or just regular surfing.

A mistake I made when first looking for my best mouse was that I was only looking for gaming products. My train of thought was “I have a gaming mouse now, so let’s just find a better one!”. But I realized that games were now far from priority – I was using my computer mostly for work. Although more complex tasks require their fair share of precision, you don’t necessarily need the “unmatched performance” of a gaming mouse. It was at that moment I could almost put my current gaming mouse to my ear and hear the marketing team laughing at me for spending my money on some shiny LEDs and a logo.



Size and weight. This matters because if you are a gamer and you need to shot a moving zombie straight in the head, you’ll need a more accurate mouse. And smaller mice aren’t always. Wireless mice are more lightweight than wired ones.

Regardless of whether you have small or big hands, you are very likely to be used to a certain mouse size. Accuracy-wise I would advise people to stay away from little mice, regardless of how compact and portable they might be. But if performance isn’t an issue you can feel free to explore mice of all shapes and sizes.

Although plenty of mouse reviewers talk about size, very few seem to mention the importance of weight. The average weight of a wired mouse is anywhere between 90 and 100 grams. When you go into more exotic mice options. However, this number can vary. Wireless mice, for instance, tend to be quite heavier, mostly due to the added weight of the batteries.



Comfort and Design. Like size and weight, they are important as well.

If you’re behind a computer for most of your day, it’s important to find a mouse that feels comfortable. From standard solutions all the way to the strange and unusual, there’s plenty of options available if ergonomics are your top priority.

The design is all about what you want to say with your peripherals. Although you

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SPanel Review – a Great cPanel Alternative by Scala Hosting

SPanel is a new control panel developed by Scala Hosting. It’s an “all-in-one” platform you can use to manage your server, take care of backups, security, and more. It’s a great alternative to cPanel. Learn more about SPanel and read our review here. About SPanel After years of hard work, testing, and developing, Scala Hosting […]


from ThisHosting.Rocks…

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Exclusive Star Labs Systems Discount Code – 5% off Laptops

Star Labs Systems are one of the best Linux laptops providers. They are the #1 position on our Best Linux Laptops list. Use this exclusive coupon to get a discount. Exclusive coupon: get 5% off at Star Labs Systems The code expires November 17th 2019, so hurry up! How to use the coupon code at […]


from ThisHosting.Rocks…

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How to Schedule and Automate tasks in Linux using Cron Jobs

Sometimes, you may have tasks that need to be performed on a regular basis or at certain predefined intervals. Such tasks include backing up databases, updating the system, performing periodic reboots and so on. Such tasks are referred to as cron jobs. Cron jobs are used for automation of tasks that come in handy and help in simplifying the execution of repetitive and sometimes mundane tasks. Cron is a daemon that allows you to schedule these jobs which are then carried out at specified intervals. In this tutorial, you will learn how to schedule jobs using cron jobs.

Schedule -tasks-in-Linux-using cron

The Crontab file

A crontab file, also known as a cron table, is a simple text file that contains rules or commands that specify the time interval of execution of a task. There are two categories of crontab files:

1)  System-wide crontab file

These are usually used by Linux services & critical applications requiring root privileges. The system crontab file is located at /etc/crontab and can only be accessed and edited by the root user. It’s usually used for the configuration of system-wide daemons. The crontab file looks as shown:


2) User-created crontab files

Linux users can also create their own cron jobs with the help of the crontab command. The cron jobs created will run as the user who created them.

All cron jobs are stored in /var/spool/cron (For RHEL and CentOS distros) and /var/spool/cron/crontabs (For Debian and Ubuntu distros), the cron jobs are listed using the username of the user that created the cron job

The cron daemon runs silently in the background checking the /etc/crontab file and /var/spool/cron and /etc/cron.d*/ directories

The crontab command is used for editing cron files. Let us take a look at the anatomy of a crontab file.

The anatomy of a crontab file

Before we go further, it’s important that we first explore how a crontab file looks like. The basic syntax for a crontab file comprises 5 columns represented by asterisks followed by the command to be carried out.

*    *    *    *    *    command

This format can also be represented as shown below:

m h d moy dow command


m h d moy dow /path/to/script

Let’s expound on each entry

  • m: This represents minutes. It’s specified from 0 to 59
  • h: This denoted the hour specified from 0 to 23
  • d:  This represents the day of the month. Specified between 1 to 31`
  • moy: This is the month of the year. It’s specified between 1 to 12
  • doy:  This is the day of the week. It’s specified between 0 and 6 where 0 = Sunday
  • Command: This is the command to be executed e.g backup command, reboot, & copy

Managing cron jobs

Having looked at the architecture of a crontab file, let’s see how you can create, edit and delete cron jobs

Creating cron jobs

To create or edit a cron job as the root user, run the command

# crontab -e

To create a cron job or schedule a task as another user, use the syntax

# crontab -u username -e

For instance, to run a cron job as user Pradeep, issue the command:

# crontab -u Pradeep -e

If there is …

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What Are The Different Kinds Of Computers?

We use computers for different reasons and different tasks. But either we’re at the office or not, computers remain the same in terms of function. They write documents, save media files, send emails, let you search the web, tabulate data, update your social media, and all the computing processes there is. But these computers are the ones that we commonly know of. There are other types that seem unfamiliar with most people. Even these computers we use in the office or at home can differ from each other base on how heavy we use them. For example, if you are active on social media, you can always use a computer to update or upload files. But if you use it for business or as a job, then you will need a computer that’s best suited for more creative tasks.


Now let’s check out the other types of computers.


Supercomputers. You might have probably heard of this one. These are the fastest and biggest computers that exist. They are used to calculate weather patterns, quantum physics, and even perform mock nuclear weapon detonation.

The “Father of Supercomputing,” Seymour Cray, built the first supercomputer in 1963 called the CDC 6600, according to Cray Inc. He founded the company Cray Research to focus on engineering supercomputer systems. Supercomputers provide the fastest processing speed of any computer. Used for highly complex calculations, supercomputers possess extreme processing capabilities. For example, the Jaguar, a Cray Inc. supercomputer, operates at 1750 Teraflops (floating point operations per second) at peak performance—which means the system can calculate 1,750,000 Gigabytes per second. Supercomputers work behind the scenes to drive the most advanced information research forward. They are used for various highly specified applications including weather research, quantum physics, nuclear weapon detonation simulations and a class of problems called the “Grand Challenge problems,” a set of problems requiring a high-performance computer.



Mid-range computers are called so after the rise of desktop computers. They were used to do various applications.

The mid-range computer, originally called the minicomputer and currently called a server, is between a microcomputer and mainframe computer (as related to size and power). The term “minicomputer” developed during the 1960s to describe computers that utilized transistor technology. During the 1970s and 1980s, the development of microcomputers—or desktops—placed minicomputers in the mid-range designation. They were considered a more powerful single-user machine. True minicomputers began to decline, however, due to a less-expensive minicomputer that used microprocessor technology. Mid-range computers provide processing services for several applications. They are used to run back-end applications such as enterprise email, database systems and network-wide antivirus software.



Personal computers are the computers we know, use, and love today. They are also known as microcomputers because their processors are micro. If supercomputers are for the most complex computing, microcomputers are for everyday use. It cannot process humongous data, but it can still process major ones.

Considered the first desktop, the HP 9830, which was released for consumer use in the 1970s, surpassed computers at the time because it featured a hard drive and utilized the BASIC programming language. Microcomputers are the most common consumer device. This computer type includes desktop personal computers and laptops. Microcomputers use a microprocessor

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How to Add Windows and Linux host to Nagios Server for Monitoring

In the previous article, we demonstrated how to install Nagios Core on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 server. In this guide, we will dive deeper and add Linux and Windows hosts to the Nagios Core server for monitoring.


Adding a Remote Windows Host to Nagios Server

In this section, you will learn how to add a Windows host system to the Nagios server. For this to be possible, you need to install NSClient++ agent on the Windows Host system. In this guide, we are going to install the NSClient++ on a Windows Server 2019 Datacenter edition.

On the Windows host system,  head out to the download link as specified and download NSClient ++ agent.

Once downloaded, double click on the downloaded installation file to launch the installation wizard.


On the first step on the installation procedure click ‘Next


In the next section, check off the ‘I accept the terms in the license Agreement’ checkbox and click ‘Next


Next, click on the ‘Typical’ option from the list of options and click ‘Next


In the next step, leave the default settings as they are and click ‘Next’.


On the next page, specify your Nagios Server core’s IP address and tick off all the modules and click ‘Next’ as shown below.


Next, click on the ‘Install’ option to commence the installation process.Click-install-to-being-the-installation-NSClient

The installation process will start and will take a couple of seconds to complete. On the last step. Click ‘Finish’ to complete the installation and exit the Wizard.


To start the NSClient service, click on the Start menu and click on the ‘Start NSClient ++’ option.


To confirm that indeed the service is running, press Windows Key + R, type services.msc and hit ENTER. Scroll and search for the NSClient service and ensure it’s running


At this point, we have successfully installed NSClient++ on Windows Server 2019 host and verified that it’s running.

Configure Nagios Server to monitor Windows host

After the successful installation of the NSClient ++ on the Windows host PC, log in to the Nagios server Core system and configure it to monitor the Windows host system.

Open the windows.cfg file using your favorite text editor

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/windows.cfg

In the configuration file, ensure that the host_name attribute matches the hostname of your Windows client system. In our case, the hostname for the Windows server PC is windows-server. This hostname should apply for all the host_name attributes.

For the address attribute, specify your Windows host IP address. , In our case, this was


After you are done, save the changes and exit the text editor.

Next, open the Nagios configuration file.

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

Uncomment the line below and save the changes.



Finally, to verify that Nagios configuration is free from any errors, run the command:

# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg



As you can see from the output, there are no warnings or errors.

Now browse your Nagios Server IP address, log in and click on Hosts. Your Windows hostname, in this case, windows-server will appear on the dashboard.


Adding a remote Linux Host to Nagios Server

Having added a Windows host …

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The Challenges of Using a Computer

If there is something that mankind has so successfully, effectively, and profitably invented, it’s the computer, the first vessel for the other triumphantly discovered internet.


Computers have made great strides ever since their creation. Historically, computing was first related to numbers. And the earliest tool recognized to count numbers was the abacus. Hence, the name computer.


Computers are useful in many different fields both at home and at work.

They can be used as research tools, scouring the internet and online databases for information about all different topics. Information that’s found can easily be downloaded and saved or printed to hard copy.



There’s not one office that doesn’t have a computer. In fact, they might be the most functional and operational items in the office. That’s all thanks to their multitasking skills of writing documents, sending emails, making presentations, scheduling meetings, doing training, etc.

Computers are also often more efficient for producing written work, whether a financial spreadsheet where numbers are automatically totaled up without the need of a calculator or a word processing document with automatic spellchecking and easy, paper-free editing.

Documents created on a computer can also easily be backed up, shared and searched, unlike paper documents that need to be stored in secure spaces and physically transported and examined.

They’ve also boosted efficiency in other areas of business by allowing people to work remotely – when on business trips, for example – and by automating tasks in fields like manufacturing.



At home, you can use it to do shopping, be active on social media, plan your out-of-the-country trip, search for recipes or housekeeping DIYs, and a whole lot more.

Computers can be also convenient shopping tools, making it possible to find any number of products without having to visit a store or thumb through a paper catalog. And they’re excellent for communication, letting people share photos, send emails and disseminate life updates on their own schedules for friends and family to see.



So what’s the deal about the challenge of using a computer? Well, for a start, since they are uber- efficient, they can replace you at work. Second, they are not soldiers. Your orders won’t always be accepted, sometimes not even welcomed, because they are programmed. Third, they can make you glued to them and not do anything else. Fourth, your privacy will be at stake. And fifth, they can give you addiction.

While they can make workplaces more efficient, they often do so effectively by putting people out of work as their jobs are replaced by automation. They can also increase bureaucracy, since it can be harder to override a process implemented on an inflexible computer than one implemented solely by humans. Computers also contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among work users that can be unhealthy.

They’ve also cost people privacy, both in terms of large databases being created of people’s behaviors and habits and in terms of data breaches. The industry has struggled to find enough talented and trained people to work in cybersecurity, even as hacks, malware and breaches are regularly in the news.

Some people also experience computer and internet addiction, which can cause problems similar to other

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