Servers

How to Install Ansible (Automation Tool) on CentOS 8/RHEL 8

Ansible is an awesome automation tool for Linux sysadmins. It is an open source configuration tool which allows sysadmins to manage hundreds of servers from one centralize node i.e Ansible Server. Ansible is the preferred configuration tool when it is compared with similar tools like Puppet, Chef and Salt because it doesn’t need any agent and it works on SSH and python.

Install-Ansible-CentOS8-RHEL8

In this tutorial we will learn how to install and use Ansible on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 system

Ansible Lab Details:

  • Minimal CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 Server (192.168.1.10) with Internet Connectivity
  • Two Ansible Nodes – Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (192.168.1.20) & CentOS 7 (192.168.1.30)

Ansible Installation steps on CentOS 8 

Ansible package is not available in default CentOS 8 package repository. so we need to enable EPEL Repository by executing the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm -y

Once the epel repository is enabled, execute the following dnf command to install Ansible

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install ansible

Output of above command :

dnf-install-ansible-centos8

Once the ansible is installed successfully, verify its version by running the following command

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo ansible --version

Ansible-version-CentOS8

Above output confirms that Installation is completed successfully on CentOS 8.

Let’s move to RHEL 8 system

Ansible Installation steps on RHEL 8

If you have a valid RHEL 8 subscription then use following subscription-manager command to enable Ansible Repo,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable ansible-2.8-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms

Once the repo is enabled then execute the following dnf command to install Ansible,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install ansible -y

Once the ansible and its dependent packages are installed then verify ansible version by executing the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo ansible --version

Alternate Way to Install Ansible via pip3 on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

If you wish to install Ansible using pip (python’s package manager) then first install pyhton3 and python3-pip packages using following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install python3 python3-pip -y

After pyhthon3 installation, verify its version by running

[[email protected] ~]$ python3 -V
Python 3.6.8
[[email protected] ~]$

Now run below pip3 command to install Ansible,

[[email protected] ~]$ pip3 install ansible --user

Output,

Ansible-Install-pip3-centos8

Above output confirms that Ansible has been installed successfully using pip3. Let’s see how we can use Ansible

How to Use Ansible Automation Tool?

When we install Ansible using yum or dnf command then its configuration file, inventory file and roles directory created automatically under /etc/ansible folder.

So, let’s add a group with name “labservers” and under this group add ubuntu 18.04 and CentOS 7 System’s ip address in /etc/ansible/hosts file

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo vi /etc/ansible/hosts
…
[labservers]
192.168.1.20
192.168.1.30
…

Save & exit file.

Once the inventory file (/etc/ansible/hosts) is updated then exchange your user’s ssh public keys with remote systems which are part of “labservers” group.

Let’s first generate your local user’s public and private key using ssh-keygen command,

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-keygen

Now exchange public key between the ansible server and its clients using the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-copy-id [email protected]
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-copy-id [email protected]

Now let’s try couple of Ansible commands, first verify the connectivity from Ansible server to its clients using ping module,

[[email protected] ~]$ ansible -m ping "labservers"

Note: If we don’t specify the inventory file in above …

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How To Transfer Files Between Computers

Transferring files from one computer to another is important. Think of it like transferring dinner plates from the cupboard to the dinner table. You can carry them by hand. You can use a tray. You can use a trolley. And you can ask someone to carry them for you. But definitely cannot throw them though. Anyway, there are many ways on how to transfer a file from one computer to another. And this article will show you how.

 

The ideal way to go will depend on the number or amount of files you want to be transferred and the computer that will do the transferring and receiving. Transferring from PC to PC can be easy. But from a PC to Mac or vice-versa can be tricky.

 

Using external storage devices is the simplest. A USB or external hard drive can be connected to the computer, copy the files, safely remove it (or not), then plug it into a Mac or PC to transfer the files.

Transferring files to a USB drive or an external drive and then to another computer has the added benefit of supplying you with backup copies of your files, but it’s one of the slowest methods and comes with added expense. You’ll need to purchase the storage device, which can range in price from less than $50 to a few hundred dollars, depending on size and other features.

(Via:https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-do-i-transfer-files-from-one-computer-to-another-computer)

 

Files can also be transferred through a local network.

You may be able to transfer files between computers on the same network if both computers are within range. When configured correctly, computers on the same network can access each other’s hard drives and files can easily be moved between them. In Windows 10, simply access the file or folder you want to move in File Explorer, press the right mouse button over it and select Give access to. A dropdown menu displays the options Specific people and Remove Access that allow you to enable or disable access to the file by other network users.

You can also use the Nearby Sharing feature in Windows 10 to share files with nearby computers and tablets running Windows 10 over Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. First, enable the feature under Shared experiences in Settings on both computers. Then access the file you want to share in File Explorer, press the right mouse button and select Share. The Share panel is displayed, showing other enabled devices within range for sharing. When you select a device, a notification will be sent saying the file has been shared.

(Via:https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-do-i-transfer-files-from-one-computer-to-another-computer)

 

Cloud Storage. The ever-reliable cloud. Google’s version, Google Drive, Microsoft’s OneDrive, and Dropbox are some of the popular cloud storage services. They make storage and transfer a whole lot easier especially from PC to Mac or vice-versa. Just open them in a browser and download the files you need.

You have the advantage of being able to preserve the file structure on your computer by uploading entire folders rather than individual files. Many cloud storage providers offer free accounts with a minimal amount of storage, though you may have to pay extra if you want to upload a large amount of data.

(Via:https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-do-i-transfer-files-from-one-computer-to-another-computer)

 

Transferring to …

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How to Accept Bitcoin Payments on WooCommerce with TripleA

In this tutorial, we’ll show you how to accept bitcoin payments on your WooCommerce instance using the TripleA plugin. Everything step is explained in detail, so this tutorial should be easy to follow for beginners. Prerequisites Before we begin with the actual tutorial, this is what you need: A WordPress site with WooCommerce installed and […]

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from ThisHosting.Rocks https://thishosting.rocks/how-to-accept-bitcoin-payments-on-woocommerce-with-triplea/…

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Tips On Cleaning Your Computer

It doesn’t matter if you have more than 5 fans, have just as much dust filters, or cover your computer case every after use (yes, some people do that), the insides of your PC will always collect dust and dirt especially if the case is open. There’s no escaping from it to happen. Since preventing dust is possible but will always have its validity, what you can do is to treat this issue. Clean your computer.

 

The goal is simple. Cool air has to successfully enter the case and hot air has to come out. This won’t happen if the filters are obstructed with dust and debris or the exhausts are blocked. If this happens, the computer or the components inside the case can overheat. And if that happens, you’ll be facing a bigger problem, if not the biggest.

 

To prevent this from happening, you want to do your best in removing all dust from the system so it becomes a good ground for cool air and clean environment.

Whenever cleaning your PC or its components, you need to take extra special care about static damage. Using an anti-static wristband is ideal, but if you don’t have one to hand, make sure to regularly ground yourself by touching your case or PSU housing.

  • Wear a dust mask or respirator if you want to avoid breathing in any of the dust and dirt you remove from your case.
  • Turn off your PC and unplug the power cable from the rear. If you want to be extra safe, unplug everything.
  • Move your computer to somewhere well ventilated if possible, or at least open a window or door to let fresh air into the room.
  • Remove the side panels and (if possible) the front panel of your case.
  • Use a lint-free cloth or can of compressed air to clean the dust from any dust filters, as well as any obvious collections in the base of the case.
  • Use a can of compressed air—we don’t recommend trying to blow forcefully yourself—to clean the dust from any heatsinks like your CPU or graphics card cooler.

(Via:https://www.pcgamer.com/how-to-clean-your-computer-case/)

 

Now that dust is everywhere, use a vacuum to clean the loose dust particles only on the floor. Anywhere but inside the case.

Once you’ve knocked all the dust loose, use a vacuum cleaner to clean up any dust that ends up on the floor. However, don’t use the vacuum directly on the interior of your case, as there is a real risk of static damage. (You could use one as a blower in a pinch, which Jarred regularly does, but don’t get the tip close to sensitive components.)

(Via:https://www.pcgamer.com/how-to-clean-your-computer-case/)

 

If you haven’t cleaned your case for eternity, you will need more than just what’s been narrated.

If your PC hasn’t been cleaned in a while, there’s a good chance you have dust caked onto the fans, vents, and heat sinks. In this case, a quick dusting won’t get you much further than the below picture, and you’ll need to do a deep clean.

(Via:https://www.pcgamer.com/how-to-clean-your-computer-case/)

 

Keep your computer in its best state so it can work efficiently for you. Dusting can be done as much as you want …

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How to Use TimeShift to Backup and Restore Ubuntu Linux

Have you ever wondered how you can backup and restore your Ubuntu or Debian system ? Timeshift is a free and opensource tool that allows you to create incremental snapshots of your filesystem. You can create a snapshot using either RSYNC or BTRFS.

TimeShift-Backup-Restore-Tool-Ubuntu

With that. let’s delve in and install Timeshift. For this tutorial, we shall install on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS system.

Installing TimeShift on Ubuntu / Debian Linux

TimeShift is not hosted officially on Ubuntu and Debian repositories. With that in mind, we are going to run the command below to add the PPA:

# add-apt-repository -y ppa:teejee2008/ppa

Add-timeshift-repository

Next, update the system packages with the command:

# apt update

After a successful system update, install timeshift by running following apt command :

# apt install timeshift

apt-install-timeshift

Preparing a backup storage device

Best practice demands that we save the system snapshot on a separate storage volume, aside from the system’s hard drive. For this guide, we are using a 16 GB flash drive as the secondary drive on which we are going to save the snapshot.

# lsblk | grep sdb

lsblk-sdb-ubuntu

For the flash drive to be used as a backup location for the snapshot, we need to create a partition table on the device. Run the following commands:

# parted /dev/sdb  mklabel gpt
# parted /dev/sdb  mkpart primary 0% 100%
# mkfs.ext4  /dev/sdb1

create-partition-table-on-drive-ubuntu

After creating a partition table on the USB flash drive, we are all set to begin creating filesystem’s snapshots!

Using Timeshift to create snapshots

To launch Timeshift, use the application menu to search for the  Timeshift application.

Access-Timeshift-Ubuntu

Click on the Timeshift icon and the system will prompt you for the Administrator’s password. Provide the password and click on Authenticate

Authentication-required-ubuntu

Next, select your preferred snapshot type.

Select-Rsync-option-timeshift

Click ‘Next’.  Select the destination drive for the snapshot. In this case, my location is the external USB drive labeled as /dev/sdb

Select-snapshot location

Next, define the snapshot levels. Levels refer to the intervals during which the snapshots are created.  You can choose to have either monthly, weekly, daily, or hourly snapshot levels.

Select-snapshot-levels-Timeshift

Click ‘Finish’

On the next Window, click on the ‘Create’ button to begin creating the snapshot. Thereafter, the system will begin creating the snapshot.

Create-snapshot-timeshift

Finally, your snapshot will be displayed as shown

Snapshot-created-TimeShift

Restoring Ubuntu / Debian from a snapshot

Having created a system snapshot, let’s now see how you can restore your system from the same snapshot. On the same Timeshift window, click on the snapshot and click on the ‘Restore’ button as shown.

Restore-snapshot-timeshift

Next, you will be prompted to select the target device.  leave the default selection and hit ‘Next’.

Select-target-device-timeshift

A dry run will be performed by Timeshift before the restore process commences.

Comparing-files-Dry-Run-timeshift

In the next window, hit the ‘Next’  button to confirm actions displayed.

Confirm-actions-timeshift

You’ll get a warning and a disclaimer as shown. Click ‘Next’ to initialize the restoration process.

Thereafter, the restore process will commence and finally, the system will thereafter reboot into an earlier version as defined by the snapshot.

Restoring-snapshot-timeshift

Conclusion

As you have seen it quite easy to use TimeShift to restore your system from a snapshot. It comes in handy when backing up system files and allows you to recover in …

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How to Install VirtualBox 6.0 on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

VirtualBox is a free and open source virtualization tools which allows techies to run multiple virtual machines of different flavor at the same time. It is generally used at desktop level (Linux and Windows), it becomes very handy when someone try to explore the features of new Linux distribution or want to install software like OpenStack, Ansible and Puppet in one VM, so in such scenarios one can launch a VM using VirtualBox.

VirtualBox is categorized as type 2 hypervisor which means it requires an existing operating system, on top of which VirtualBox software will be installed. VirtualBox provides features to create our own custom host only network and NAT network. In this article we will demonstrate how to install latest version of VirtualBox 6.0 on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 System and will also demonstrate on how to install VirtualBox Extensions.

Installation steps of VirtualBox 6.0 on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

Step:1) Enable VirtualBox and EPEL Repository

Login to your CentOS 8 or RHEL 8 system and open terminal and execute the following commands to enable VirtualBox and EPEL package repository.

[[email protected] ~]# dnf config-manager --add-repo=https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/el/virtualbox.repo
Adding repo from: https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/el/virtualbox.repo
[[email protected] ~]#

Use below rpm command to import Oracle VirtualBox Public Key

[[email protected] ~]# rpm --import https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc

Enable EPEL repo using following dnf command,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm -y

Step:2) Install VirtualBox Build tools and dependencies

Run the following command to install all VirtualBox build tools and dependencies,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install binutils kernel-devel kernel-headers libgomp make patch gcc glibc-headers glibc-devel dkms -y

Once above decencies and build tools are installed successfully proceed with VirtualBox installation using dnf command,

Step:3) Install VirtualBox 6.0 on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

If wish to list available versions of VirtualBox then execute the following dnf command,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf search virtualbox
Last metadata expiration check: 0:14:36 ago on Sun 17 Nov 2019 04:13:16 AM GMT.
=============== Summary & Name Matched: virtualbox =====================
VirtualBox-5.2.x86_64 : Oracle VM VirtualBox
VirtualBox-6.0.x86_64 : Oracle VM VirtualBox
[[email protected] ~]#

Let’s install latest version of VirtualBox 6.0 using following dnf command,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install VirtualBox-6.0 -y

If any local user want to attach usb device to VirtualBox VMs then he/she should be part “vboxuser ” group, use the beneath usermod command to add local user to “vboxuser” group.

[[email protected] ~]# usermod -aG vboxusers pkumar

Step:4) Access VirtualBox on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

There are two ways to access VirtualBox, from the command line type “virtualbox” command on then hit enter

[[email protected] ~]# virtualbox

From Desktop environment, Search “VirtualBox” from Search Dash.

Access-VirtualBox-CentOS8

Click on VirtualBox icon,

VirtualBox-CentOS8

This confirms that VirtualBox 6.0 has been installed successfully, let’s install its extension pack.

Step:5) Install VirtualBox 6.0 Extension Pack

As the name suggests, VirtualBox extension pack is used to extend the functionality of VirtualBox. It adds the following features:

  • USB 2.0 & USB 3.0 support
  • Virtual RDP (VRDP)
  • Disk Image Encryption
  • Intel PXE Boot
  • Host WebCam

Use below wget command to download extension pack under download folder,

[[email protected] ~]$ cd Downloads/
[[email protected] Downloads]$ wget https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/6.0.14/Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-6.0.14.vbox-extpack

Once it is downloaded, access VirtualBox and navigate File –>Preferences –> Extension then click on + icon to add downloaded extension pack,

Install-VirtualBox-Extension-Pack-CentOS8

Click on “Install” to start the installation of …

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Black Friday/Cyber Monday Web Hosting Deals [2019]

We’ve listed every Black Friday/Cyber Monday web hosting deal we could find for the best web hosting providers. We will not list any deals for HostGator, Bluehost, A Small Orange, Domain.com, FatCow, iPage, Site5 or any other EIG hosting company. In short, every EIG host has terrible customer support, slow servers, and are known to […]

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from ThisHosting.Rocks https://thishosting.rocks/black-friday-cyber-monday-web-hosting-deals/…

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Hard Drive-less Computer

Every computer has a brain called the Central Processing Unit. It is named so because all major processes happen here. All brains have memory storage. And under the memory is the ROM or the Read Only Memory, the RAM or the Random Access Memory, and the cache. Among these storage hardware is the HDD or the Hard Disk Drive.

 

Most computers you see on the market today whether desktops or laptops have a hard disk drive or hard drive in short, as the main storage memory. There are those that have SSDs Solid State Drive as well. Hard drives have been proven a reliable technology in the computing world that’s why they are still around today and are ever-improving. A computer cannot efficiently process things without a memory hardware. But it can do so without a hard drive. Really? Arguably so.

 

A computer can still function without a hard drive. This can be done through a network, USB, CD, or DVD. Believe it or not.

Although a hard drive is typically where an operating system is installed, there are a number of ways you can run a computer without one. Computers can be booted over a network, through a USB drive, or even off of a CD or DVD. When you attempt to run a computer without a hard drive, you will often be asked for a boot device.

(Via:https://www.techwalla.com/articles/what-will-a-computer-do-without-a-hard-drive)

 

Upon startup. When a computer starts, various tests and checks are done. This is why you can’t immediately use the computer as soon as you see the desktop or the screen. You have to give it a minute or two.

When a computer first runs, a Power On Self Test (POST) is performed. This checks all of the hardware to make sure that everything is responding properly, then a series of system beeps are performed. The BIOS is loaded and the computer then looks for a boot device based upon the order of the devices in memory. These devices can be hard drives, network drives, external drives, or even removable media. Many servers are actual ran off of a single-network device with the hardware loading an operating system into RAM memory over the network.

(Via:https://www.techwalla.com/articles/what-will-a-computer-do-without-a-hard-drive)

 

In cases where no devices are found, your computer will let you know and will present you with a blank screen, one message, and a cursor that’s blinking. Kind of like the first computers.

If your system runs through the list of devices in the BIOS and none are available for booting, it will simply perform a series of PC speaker beeps and inform you that no bootable devices have been found. You will be presented with a blank screen, with a single message, and a blinking cursor. If there is an available device for booting, yet the machine is unable to recognize it, you may want to try modifying your BIOS settings and rearranging the boot order to recognize the device first.

(Via:https://www.techwalla.com/articles/what-will-a-computer-do-without-a-hard-drive)

 

Compared to booting using external storage, booting through the network is better.

It is increasingly common for a company to create discless systems that boot over the network. These systems are all controlled by a single server that simply virtualizes

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Working Apex Hosting Promo Codes

Apex Hosting is a popular Minecraft server provider with years of experience and thousands of positive reviews around the web. Get a discount by using one of these working promo codes. Get 25% off your first invoice at Apex Hosting with this promo code Get a 50% one-time discount at Apex Hosting with this promotion […]

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How to install and Configure Postfix Mail Server on CentOS 8

Postfix is a free and opensource MTA (Mail Transfer Agent) used for routing or delivering emails on a Linux system. In this guide, you will learn how to install and configure Postfix on CentOS 8.

Install-configure-Postfx-Server-CentOS8

Lab set up:

  • OS :                  CentOS 8 server
  • IP Address :   192.168.1.13
  • Hostname:     server1.crazytechgeek.info (Ensure the domain name is pointed to the server’s IP)

Step 1) Update the system

The first step is to ensure that the system packages are up to date. To do so, update the system as follows:

# dnf update

Before proceeding further, also ensure that no other MTAs such as Sendmail are existing as this will cause conflict with Postfix configuration. To remove Sendmail, for example, run the command:

# dnf remove sendmail

Step 2)  Set Hostname and update /etc/hosts file

Use below hostnamectl command to set the hostname on your system,

# hostnamectl set-hostname server1.crazytechgeek.info
# exec bash

Additionally, you need to add the system’s hostname and IP entries in the /etc/hosts file

# vim /etc/hosts
192.168.1.13   server1.crazytechgeek.info

Save and exit the file.

Step 3) Install Postfix Mail Server

After verifying that no other MTA is running on the system install Postfix by executing the command:

# dnf install postfix

Install-Postfix-Centos8

Step 4) Start and enable Postfix Service

Upon successful installation of Postfix, start and enable Postfix service by running:

# systemctl start postfix
# systemctl enable postfix

To check Postfix status, run the following systemctl command

# systemctl status postfix

Start-Postfix-check-status-centos8

Great, we have verified that Postfix is up and running. Next, we are going to configure Postfix to send emails locally to our server.

Step 5) Install mailx email client

Before configuring the Postfix server, we need to install mailx feature, To install mailx, run the command:

# dnf install mailx

Install-Mailx-CentOS8

Step 6)  Configure Postfix Mail Server

Postfix’s configuration file is located in /etc/postfix/main.cf. We need to make a few changes in the configuration file, so open it using your favorite text editor.

# vi /etc/postfix/main.cf

Make changes to the following lines:

myhostname = server1.crazytechgeek.info
mydomain = crazytechgeek.info
myorigin = $mydomain
## Uncomment and Set inet_interfaces to all ##
inet_interfaces = all
## Change to all ##
inet_protocols = all
## Comment ##
#mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost
##- Uncomment ##
mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost, $mydomain
## Uncomment and add IP range ##
mynetworks = 192.168.1.0/24, 127.0.0.0/8
## Uncomment ##
home_mailbox = Maildir/

Once done, save and exit the configuration file. Restart postfix  service for the changes to take effect

# systemctl restart postfix

Step 7) Testing  Postfix Mail Server

Test whether our configuration is working, first, create a test user

# useradd postfixuser
# passwd postfixuser

Next, run the command below to send email from pkumar local user to another user ‘postfixuser

# telnet localhost smtp
or
# telnet localhost 25

If telnet service is not installed, you can install it using the command:

# dnf install telnet -y

When you run the command as earlier indicated, you should get the output as shown

[[email protected] ~]# telnet localhost 25
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 server1.crazytechgeek.info ESMTP Postfix

Above confirm that connectivity to postfix mail server is working fine. Next, type the command:

# ehlo localhost

Output will be something …

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