Servers

Are Hybrid Solutions Best For Data Protection?

A business without data is dead. It just can’t go on. How can a business run, more so, thrive if there’s loss of data.? All kinds of businesses rely a lot on data. No matter what kind of business it is, it relies a lot on data. That’s the reason why businesses should take care of their data.

Businesses are well aware of the fact that IT environments generate data that needs effective storage technology and data recovery technology like backup and disaster recovery. This applies to all kinds of businesses regardless of the size (SMBs, SMEs, Large Enterprises).

(Via: https://www.techiexpert.com/what-makes-hybrid-solutions-best-choice-for-business-it-infrastructures/)

Unfortunately, some businesses don’t put too much importance on data backups. Even worst, they don’t have a disaster recovery plan in place.

There’s no excuse for lack of data backups. Whether a business is big or small, it should have a reliable process to back up data. That way, they can always get back their data in case of an emergency.

A solid disaster recovery plan includes a reliable backup system. The problem is, some businesses don’t want to invest in it. They think it’s just too expensive.

So, why are SMBs, SMEs or startups reluctant about purchasing and setting up these technologies? It’s the price tag on them.
IT infrastructures tend to be very costly and besides these CapEx costs, there are OpEx costs to them as well. An IT infrastructure requires maintenance, power, cooling and teams that manage and maintain them.

(Via: https://www.techiexpert.com/what-makes-hybrid-solutions-best-choice-for-business-it-infrastructures/)

A disaster recovery plan does not have to include costly IT infrastructures. There is a more affordable option for small businesses.

Instead of pushing IT environments into the corner, businesses can opt to setup value products and support their IT environments. There are a number of technologies available that can make this happen …

(Via: https://www.techiexpert.com/what-makes-hybrid-solutions-best-choice-for-business-it-infrastructures/)

Small businesses can consider backing up to the cloud. There are cloud service providers that don’t even require their clients to set up any kind of IT infrastructure. Once the business is signed with the service, data from the computers are automatically backed up. Now, that’s pretty convenient but it doesn’t mean that it suits all kinds of businesses.

Cloud technology might sound convenient from the stand point of a small business owner. However, there are three things to consider when opting for the cloud.

o It’s good but not as efficient as on-premises infrastructure
o It gets complex when you integrate it for storage, backup and disaster recovery
o It’s susceptible to network connections, bandwidth limitations and file size limitations

(Via: https://www.techiexpert.com/what-makes-hybrid-solutions-best-choice-for-business-it-infrastructures/)

While cloud technology has its limitation, it coud still be very useful especially when combined with a storage appliance. Hybrid solutions are best for small- or medium-sized businesses. They can definitely protect data since they make use of both cloud technology and a storage appliance.

Hybrid solutions are simply the combination of on-premises infrastructure with cloud based services. An example would be a Network Attached Storage (NAS) appliance with cloud connect services.

(Via: https://www.techiexpert.com/what-makes-hybrid-solutions-best-choice-for-business-it-infrastructures/)

There are cloud service companies that provide both online backup and NAS. Small businesses don’t have to worry about investing in another hardware device since it comes with the service as well. With both online backup …

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How to Install and Configure KVM on RHEL 8

KVM is an open source virtualization technology which converts your Linux machine into a type-1 bare-metal hypervisor that allows you to run multiple virtual machines (VMs) or guest VMs

Install-KVM-RHEL8

KVM stands for Kernel based Virtual machine, as the name suggests KVM is a kernel module, once it is loaded into the kernel , then your Linux machine will start working as a KVM hypervisor. In this article we will demonstrate how to install KVM on RHEL 8 system but before start installing KVM on your RHEL 8 system first we have to make sure that your system’s processor supports hardware virtualization extensions like Intel VT or AMD-V and enabled it from BIOS.

RHEL 8 KVM Lab Details:

  • OS = RHEL 8
  • Hostname = rhel8-kvm
  • Ethernet Cards = ens32 –  192.168.1.4 & ens36 – 192.168..1.12
  • RAM = 4 GB
  • CPU = 2
  • Disk = 40 GB Free Space (/var/libvirtd)

Let’s Jump into the KVM installation steps

Step:1) Verify Hardware Virtualization is enabled or not

Open the terminal and execute the beneath egrep command

[[email protected] ~]# egrep -c '(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo
2
[[email protected] ~]#

If output of above egrep command is equal to 1 or more than 1 then this confirms that hardware virtualization is enabled and supported.

Alternate way to check whether hardware virtualization is enabled or not , execute the beneath command,

[[email protected] ~]# lscpu | grep Virtualization:
Virtualization:      VT-x
[[email protected] opt]#

If there is no output in above command then it confirms that Virtualization is not enabled from BIOS.

Note: To enable hardware virtualization reboot your system, go to bios settings and then look for Intel VT or AMD virtualization option and enable one of this option which which suits to your system architecture.

Step:2) Install KVM and its dependent packages vsing dnf

Run the following dnf command to install KVM and its dependent packages,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install qemu-kvm qemu-img libvirt virt-install libvirt-client virt-manager -y

Once above packages has been successfully, run the below command to confirm whether KVM module has been loaded into the kernel or not,

[email protected] ~]# lsmod | grep -i kvm
kvm_intel             245760  0
kvm                   745472  1 kvm_intel
irqbypass              16384  1 kvm
[[email protected] ~]#

Step:3) Enable and Start libvirtd service

Run the following systemctl command to enable and start libvirtd service,

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable libvirtd
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start libvirtd

Step:4) Create Network bridge and attach Interface to it 

In RHEL 8, network scripts are deprecated, We have to use Network Manager (nmcli / nmtui) to configure network and network bridges.

I have two Ethernet cards on my server, ens36 will attached to bridge br0 and ens32 will be used for management .

[[email protected] ~]# nmcli connection show
NAME    UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE
ens32   1d21959d-e2ea-4129-bb89-163486c8d7bc  ethernet  ens32 
ens36   1af408b6-c98e-47ce-bca7-5141b721f8d4  ethernet  ens36 
virbr0  d0f05de4-4b3b-4710-b904-2524b5ad11bf  bridge    virbr0
[[email protected] ~]#

Delete the existing connection of interface “ens36”

[[email protected] ~]# nmcli connection delete ens36
Connection 'ens36' (1af408b6-c98e-47ce-bca7-5141b721f8d4) successfully deleted.
[[email protected] ~]#

Create a Network Bridge with name “br0” using mcli command,

[[email protected] ~]# nmcli connection add type bridge autoconnect yes con-name br0 ifname br0
Connection 'br0' (62c14e9d-3e72-41c2-8ecf-d17978ad02da) successfully added.
[[email protected] ~]#

Assign the same IP of ens36 to the bridge interface using following nmcli commands,

[[email protected] ~]# nmcli connection modify br0 ipv4.addresses 192.168.1.12/24 ipv4.method manual
[[email protected] 
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A More Practical Way To Recover Data From Ransomware

Ransomware is scary. It’s a computer virus you’d want to stay away from. If your computer isn’t protected, it’s going to be pretty hard to stay away from it.

Sad to say, the most common remedy to this particular virus is to pay an exorbitant fee to get back your data. That’s ridiculous! Why should you have to pay for your very own data?

Unfortunately, that’s the way it goes. Once your computer is infected by ransomware, everything in it is held hostage. If you think that’s totally surreal and it can’t happen to you, well, think again.

Every 14 seconds, a new business is targeted by ransomware — a virus that holds its software systems or data hostage until a ransom is paid for their safe return.

(Via: https://thehustle.co/hackers-ransomware-cybersecurity-ethics/)

The last thing your business needs is to be in the mercy of hackers. You simply cannot afford to have all your confidential data turned over to a bunch of crooks.

If your computers have not been infected by ransomware, then good for you. However, that does not mean that you’re going to be spared from it at all times. Your computers can still get infected. You just don’t know when.

It’s just very unfortunate that businesses have to pay to get back their data. They don’t really have much of a choice, do they?

Once businesses are hit, they have 2 options: Pay hackers to return the data, or pay ransom-busting startups to recover it.

(Via: https://thehustle.co/hackers-ransomware-cybersecurity-ethics/)

Even if you don’t resort to paying the hacker, you’re bound to spend a lot as well.

But, according to a new ProPublica report, those 2 options are often the same: Most “high-tech” data recovery startups merely pay the hackers behind the scenes — and then pocket the extra fees.

(Via: https://thehustle.co/hackers-ransomware-cybersecurity-ethics/)

While ransomware recovery companies offer a valuable service to help you in times of trouble, you would still have to pay. In most cases, you would have to pay a lot.

The business model is simple: Ransomware recovery companies charge their clients fees that are far higher than the ransom amounts, so they make money no matter what.
Some firms are upfront about the fact that they negotiate with hackers — sharing data with law enforcement agencies and security researchers to prevent future thefts — but most intentionally obscure their payouts.

(Via: https://thehustle.co/hackers-ransomware-cybersecurity-ethics/)

It’s hard to tell how ransomware recovery companies go about their business. The thing is, their service is useless if they just end up paying the hackers. Why hire a company to do that when you could do it yourself, right? Besides, paying the hackers will only pave way to more cases of ransomware.

But paying ransoms perpetuates the extortion industry: Cyberattackers who routinely collect $6m or more from secretive “data recovery” companies have every incentive to continue ransoming their way to riches.

(Via: https://thehustle.co/hackers-ransomware-cybersecurity-ethics/)

So, what can you do in case your computers get infected by ransomware? To start with, you should make sure your computers are all protected. If they’re not, protect them now. Ransomware is on the rise and you need that layer of protection now.

Ransomware rates continue to rise for businesses: Ransomware attacks have increased 97% in

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Change And Reset Password On Your Mac Computer

Need to change your Mac password? If you need to, don’t worry. You can easily do it.

Changing your password from time to time is important. It actually is a good practice to change your password regularly. Of course, you just have to remember it. If you forget it, there’s still no reason for you to worry. You can easily change and reset your password on your Mac computer.

Here’s are the simple steps that can help you change the password in your Mac computer.

If you know your password, you can login to your account and reset it with a few easy steps.

1. Log into your Mac.

2. Open the Apple menu (the Apple logo at the top-left of your screen) and choose “System Preferences.” You may also have it pinned to your menu bar (it’s a gray gear).

3. Click “Users & Groups.”

4. Select your user account on the left of the box and click the padlock in the bottom left to make your changes.

5. Click “Change Password.”

6. Enter your current password, your new password (twice) and a hint to help you remember your password (don’t make it too obvious). Click “Change Password” to complete the process.

(Via: https://www.newstimes.com/technology/businessinsider/article/How-to-change-your-Apple-ID-and-device-passwords-13841102.php)

Changing password is a lot different from resetting it. To say the least, the latter leaves you clueless as to what your password is. You really have no idea what it is but you shouldn’t worry about it. You can always reset your password but before you do so, keep this in mind.

Before you attempt to reset your password, check that you’re typing the correct upper and lower case letters and that Caps Lock isn’t turned on. Your password field may also have a question mark, which will display a password hint when clicked.

(Via: https://www.newstimes.com/technology/businessinsider/article/How-to-change-your-Apple-ID-and-device-passwords-13841102.php)

It’s not just your mom or grandma who usually forgets passwords. Everybody forgets passwords. When you do forget yours,  you can refer to these simple steps to reset.

There are two ways you can reset your Mac password. First of which is by using your Apple ID.

You may be able to reset your password using your Apple ID.

1. To trigger this option, keep entering passwords until you’re given the prompt that you can reset your password using your Apple ID.

Note: If you don’t see this message after 3 or more password attempts, then you don’t have this option and will have to try another method.

2. Click the arrow next to the prompt message and enter your Apple ID.

3. Create a new password and password hint.

4. Restart your Mac and log in using the new password.

(Via: https://www.newstimes.com/technology/businessinsider/article/How-to-change-your-Apple-ID-and-device-passwords-13841102.php)

You can also use your admin user to reset your Mac password.

If you’ve got multiple users on your Mac, and one of them is an admin, then you can log into that account and use it to reset your password.

1. Log into the admin user account.

2. Open “System Preferences” from the Apple menu or on your menu bar (it’s a gray gear).

3. Click “Users & Groups.”

4. Click the lock symbol and enter the admin name and password.

5. Select the name of the user

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How to Use VLAN tagged NIC (Ethernet Card) on CentOS and RHEL Servers

There are some scenarios where we want to assign multiple IPs from different VLAN on the same Ethernet card (nic) on Linux servers (CentOS / RHEL). This can be done by enabling VLAN tagged interface. But for this to happen first we must make sure multiple VLANs are attached to port on switch or in other words we can say we should configure trunk port by adding multiple VLANs on switch.

VLAN-Tagged-NIC-Linux-Server

Let’s assume we have a Linux Server, there we have two Ethernet cards (enp0s3 & enp0s8), first NIC ( enp0s3 ) will be used for data traffic and second NIC (enp0s8) will be used for control / management traffic. For Data traffic I will using multiple VLANs (or will assign multiple IPs from different VLANs on data traffic ethernet card).

I am assuming the port from switch which is connected to my server data NIC is configured as trunk port by mapping the multiple VLANs to it.

Following are the VLANs which is mapped to data traffic Ethernet Card (NIC):

  • VLAN ID (200), VLAN N/W = 172.168.10.0/24
  • VLAN ID (300), VLAN N/W = 172.168.20.0/24

To use VLAN tagged interface on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / CentOS 8 /RHEL 8 systems, kernel module 8021q must be loaded.

Use the following command to load the kernel module “8021q”

[[email protected] ~]# lsmod | grep -i 8021q
[[email protected] ~]# modprobe --first-time 8021q
[[email protected] ~]# lsmod | grep -i 8021q
8021q                  29022  0
garp                   14384  1 8021q
mrp                    18542  1 8021q
[[email protected] ~]#

Use below modinfo command to display information about kernel module “8021q”

[[email protected] ~]# modinfo 8021q
filename:       /lib/modules/3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64/kernel/net/8021q/8021q.ko
version:        1.8
license:        GPL
alias:          rtnl-link-vlan
rhelversion:    7.2
srcversion:     2E63BD725D9DC11C7DA6190
depends:        mrp,garp
intree:         Y
vermagic:       3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64 SMP mod_unload modversions
signer:         CentOS Linux kernel signing key
sig_key:        79:AD:88:6A:11:3C:A0:22:35:26:33:6C:0F:82:5B:8A:94:29:6A:B3
sig_hashalgo:   sha256
[[email protected] ~]#

Now tagged (or mapped) the VLANs 200 and 300 to NIC enp0s3 using the ip command

[[email protected] ~]# ip link add link enp0s3 name enp0s3.200 type vlan id 200

Bring up the interface using below ip command:

[[email protected] ~]# ip link set dev enp0s3.200 up

Similarly mapped the VLAN 300 to NIC enp0s3

[[email protected] ~]# ip link add link enp0s3 name enp0s3.300 type vlan id 300
[[email protected] ~]# ip link set dev enp0s3.300 up
[[email protected] ~]#

Now view the tagged interface status using ip command:

tagged-interface-ip-command

Now we can assign the IP address to tagged interface from their respective VLANs using beneath ip command,

[[email protected] ~]# ip addr add 172.168.10.51/24 dev enp0s3.200
[[email protected] ~]# ip addr add 172.168.20.51/24 dev enp0s3.300

Use below ip command to see whether IP is assigned to tagged interface or not.

ip-address-tagged-nic

All the above changes via ip commands will not be persistent across the reboot. These tagged interfaces will not be available after reboot and after network service restart

So, to make tagged interfaces persistent across the reboot then use interface ifcfg files

Edit interface (enp0s3) file “/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3” and add the following content,

Note: Replace the interface name that suits to your env,

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3
TYPE=Ethernet
DEVICE=enp0s3
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes

Save & exit the file

Create tagged interface file for VLAN id 200 as “/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3.200” and add the following contents to it.

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3.200
DEVICE=enp0s3.200
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=172.168.10.51
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What’s Your Backup System In Case Your Hard Drive Crashes?

What if your hard drive crashes? What would you do? Would you worry? If not, you probably have a backup system in place.

All you really need is a good backup system to survive a hard drive crash. Unfortunately, not everybody has a backup system. For folks who already have one, they’ve probably had to experience a hard drive crash to realize the need for a backup system.

Such is the case with Harrison Jacobs, an international correspondent who learned the hard way. He had never had a backup system. So, when his hard drive crashed, he lost a lot.

I’ve made a lot of mistakes since I left New York to travel around the world as Business Insider’s international correspondent. By far the worst was when the external hard drive with all of my photos, videos, and interviews failed.

(Via: https://www.businessinsider.com/back-up-photos-google-photos-external-hard-drive-2019-1)

Thinking that hard drives don’t fail is a mistake most people are guilty of. They rely so much on their hard drives that they take it for granted. That’s exactly what happened to Harrison.

There was one mistake I made during my first six months on the road that was not funny at all. Even now, when I think about it, I get a little sick to my stomach.

It happened innocuously enough. I was editing photos while sitting on a couch in an Airbnb when I shifted a little too much and knocked my external hard drive, a Seagate Expansion Portable Hard Drive. The drive dismounted and, rather than keep editing photos, I went off to sleep.

When I plugged it in two days later, I heard a clicking sound. After trying every online-forum solution possible, I brought it to a data specialist and got the worst news: a head crash, the worst kind of hard drive failure possible. Even if the hard drive had been semi-recoverable, it would have cost me hundreds, if not thousands of dollars to recover the data.

Thanks to one bad jolt, I lost three months’ worth of photos, interviews, and videos. When I found out, I had a full-blown panic attack.

(Via: https://www.businessinsider.com/back-up-photos-google-photos-external-hard-drive-2019-1)

Who would have thought that a single jolt could damage a hard drive? Unfortunately, in Harrison’s case, it did. Since he didn’t have a backup system, his data got severely affected by the damaged hard drive. That painful experience led him to a foolproof backup system.

First, he switched to a solid-state drive.

My first step was to find a reliable and fast external hard drive that I could trust as my primary backup. The best solution these days — though not the most affordable — is a solid-state hard drive, or SSD.

The standard hard drives that most people use are hard disk drives (HDDs). Inside HDDs are spinning platters that store your data. The benefit of an HDD is that it is cheap for a high storage capacity. The downside is that, due to the moving parts on the inside, they are much more prone to failure.

(Via: https://www.businessinsider.com/back-up-photos-google-photos-external-hard-drive-2019-1)

Second, he backed up his data twice.

The Sandisk Extreme SSD became my first layer of security. All photos, video, and audio interviews are now backed up to this hard drive first.

But I

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Step by Step Zorin OS 15 Installation Guide with Screenshots

Good News for all the Zorin users out there! Zorin has launched its latest version of its Ubuntu based Linux distro. Since its launch in July 2009, it is estimated that the popular distribution has reached more than 17 million downloads. Zorin is renowned for creating a distro for beginner level users and the all new Zorin OS 15 comes packed with a lot of goodies that surely will make Zorin OS lovers happy. Let’s see some of the major enhancements made in the latest version.

New Features of Zorin OS 15

Zorin OS has always amazed users with different set of features when every version is released Zorin OS 15 is no exception as it comes with a lot of new features as outlined below:

Enhanced User Experience

The moment you look at the Zorin OS 15, you will ask whether it is a Linux distro because it looks more like a Windows OS. According to Zorin, it wanted Windows users to get ported to Linux in a more user-friendlier manner. And it features a Windows like Start menu, quick app launchers, a traditional task bar section, system tray etc.

Zorin Connect

Another major highlight of Zorin OS 15 is the ability to integrate your Android Smartphones seamlessly with your desktop using the Zorin Connect application. With your phone connected, you can share music, videos and other files between your phone and desktop. You can even use your phone as a mouse to control the desktop. You can also easily control the media playback in your desktop from your phone itself. Quickly reply to all your messages and notifications sent to your phone from your desktop.

New GTK Theme

Zorin OS 15 ships with an all new GTK Theme that has been exclusively built for this distro and the theme is available in 6 different colors along with the hugely popular dark theme. Another highlight is that the OS automatically detects the time of the day and changes the desktop theme accordingly. Say for example, during sunset it switches to a dark theme whereas in the morning it switches to bright theme automatically.

Other New Features:

Zorin OS 15 comes packed with a lot of new features including:

  • Compatible with Thunderbolt 3.0 devices
  • Supports color emojis
  • Comes with an upgraded Linux Kernel 4.18
  • Customized settings available for application menu and task bar
  • System font changed to Inter
  • Supports renaming bulk files

Minimum system requirements for Zorin OS 15 (Core):

  • Dual Core 64-bit (1GHZ)
  • 2 GB RAM
  • 10 GB free disk space
  • Internet Connection Optional
  • Display (800×600)

Step by Step Guide to Install Zorin OS 15 (Core)

Before you start installing Zorin OS 15, ensure you have a copy of the Zorin OS 15 downloaded in your system. If not download it from the official website of Zorin OS 15. Remember this Linux distribution is available in 4 versions including:

  • Ultimate (Paid Version)
  • Core (Free Version)
  • Lite (Free Version)
  • Education (Free Version)

Note: In this article I will demonstrate Zorin OS 15 Core Installation Steps

Step 1) Create Zorin OS 15 Bootable USB Disk

Once you have downloaded Zorin OS 15, copy the ISO into an USB disk and create a bootable disk. Change our system settings to boot using …

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How to Set ulimit and file descriptors limit on Linux Servers

Introduction:  Challenges like number of open files in any of the production environment has become common now a day. Since many applications which are Java based and Apache based, are getting installed and configured, which may lead to many open files, file descriptors etc. If this exceeds the default limit that is set, then one may face access control problems and file opening challenges. Many production environments come to standstill kind of situations because of this.

ulimit-number-openfiles-linux-server

Luckily, we have “ulimit” command in any of the Linux based server, by which one can see/set/get number of files open status/configuration details. This command is equipped with many options and with this combination one can set number of open files. Following are step-by-step commands with examples explained in detail.

To see what is the present open file limit in any Linux System

To get open file limit on any Linux server, execute the following command,

[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
146013

The above number  shows that user can open ‘146013’ file per user login session.

[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
149219
[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
73906

This clearly indicates that individual Linux operating systems have different number of open files. This is based on dependencies and applications which are running in respective systems.

ulimit command :

As the name suggests, ulimit (user limit) is used to display and set resources limit for logged in user.When we run ulimit command with -a option then it will print all resources’ limit for the logged in user. Now let’s run “ulimit -a” on Ubuntu / Debian and CentOS systems,

Ubuntu / Debian System,

[email protected] ~}$ ulimit -a
core file size          (blocks, -c) 0
data seg size           (kbytes, -d) unlimited
scheduling priority             (-e) 0
file size               (blocks, -f) unlimited
pending signals                 (-i) 5731
max locked memory       (kbytes, -l) 64
max memory size         (kbytes, -m) unlimited
open files                      (-n) 1024      
pipe size            (512 bytes, -p) 8
POSIX message queues     (bytes, -q) 819200
real-time priority              (-r) 0
stack size              (kbytes, -s) 8192
cpu time               (seconds, -t) unlimited
max user processes              (-u) 5731
virtual memory          (kbytes, -v) unlimited
file locks                      (-x) unlimited

CentOS System

[email protected] ~}$ ulimit -a
core file size          (blocks, -c) 0
data seg size           (kbytes, -d) unlimited
scheduling priority             (-e) 0
file size               (blocks, -f) unlimited
pending signals                 (-i) 5901
max locked memory       (kbytes, -l) 64
max memory size         (kbytes, -m) unlimited
open files                      (-n) 1024
pipe size            (512 bytes, -p) 8
POSIX message queues     (bytes, -q) 819200
real-time priority              (-r) 0
stack size              (kbytes, -s) 8192
cpu time               (seconds, -t) unlimited
max user processes              (-u) 5901
virtual memory          (kbytes, -v) unlimited
file locks                      (-x) unlimited

As we can be seen here different OS have different limits set. All these limits can be configured/changed using “ulimit” command.

To display the individual resource limit then pass the individual parameter in ulimit command, some of parameters are listed below:

  • ulimit -n  –> it will display number of open files limit
  • ulimit -c –> it display the size of core file, zero means you are not allowed to take core dump.
  • umilit -u –> it will display the maximum user process limit for the logged in user.
  • ulimit -f –> it will display the maximum file size that the
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Safety Tips To Keep Hackers Away

Hackers are everywhere. You’ll never really know when they’ll strike. When they do, they will take away vital data from your computer.

No one wants to get hacked. Unfortunately, it happens. Hackers are heartless people. That’s why it’s important to understand what they do and how they do it.

A recent public forum explained what hacking is all about.

What is hacking and how can it be avoided?

These two questions were among many addressed on Tuesday at a public forum titled “You Have Been Hacked!” featuring Charles J. Lesko Jr., director of graduate studies in the ECU College of Engineering and Technology.

“Hacking” refers to the act of someone gaining unauthorized access into a computer or network, Lesko said.

“Anything that’s got digital capability nowadays has the ability for someone to — in some way, shape or form — alter,” he said. “That’s the age that we’re living in now.”

(Via: http://www.reflector.com/News/2019/04/10/You-ve-Been-Hacked.html)

Why do hackers do what they do? Here’s what Lesko has to say about that:

There are many nefarious reasons for hacking, but the primary one is to get your money, Lasko said.

(Via: http://www.reflector.com/News/2019/04/10/You-ve-Been-Hacked.html)

Lesko also offers some safety tips to keep the hackers away.

Never respond to a request from any organization or a business that sends an email asking you for your user ID and password, Lesko said.

“That’s an immediate delete,” he said. “Unless you trust (something) explicitly, don’t (click on it).”

Know the difference between “http” and “https,” letters that appear in the address of a website, Lesko said. The “s” indicates that the website connection is secure.

Regarding passwords, it is best to have ones that are complex and secure, Lesko said. People tend to use simple passwords, even as simple as “password” and “pa$$word,” because they are easy to remember. But they are also easy for hackers to break into.

(Via: http://www.reflector.com/News/2019/04/10/You-ve-Been-Hacked.html)

The key is, never trust emails that ask you to share or update your personal information on the attached link. To start with, organizations or businesses, like banks, will never ask you to update personal information online.
So, if you get an email that seems to look like it’s from your bank, verify it first. Do not trust it and do exactly what Lesko says. Delete it.

Knowing the difference between “http’ and “https” is critical especially if you do a lot of research online. It’s really just a matter of looking out for the letter “s” when you choose a website.

When it comes to password management, Lesko adds;

Lesko recommended using a “password manager” tool that allows computer users to have a range of secure and complex passwords without their having to remember a thing. He also recommended installing antivirus programs, not only on computers but on mobile phones which are also susceptible to hacking.

(Via: http://www.reflector.com/News/2019/04/10/You-ve-Been-Hacked.html)

According to Lesko, using a virtual private network or VPN can also keep the hackers away.

Another way to keep data safe is to use the services of a virtual private network (VPN), Lesko said.

“(It’s) a way to secure your online activity by routing your traffic through their servers,” he said.

(Via: http://www.reflector.com/News/2019/04/10/You-ve-Been-Hacked.html)

Lesko also adds that sensitive information should never be stored …

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