Easy-To-Follow Tips To Maintain Your Hard Drive

You can’t live without a computer. These days, a computer is an important component of your life. You simply can’t do without it, especially at work.

Computers rank at the top of the most valued pieces of equipment for any business.

Professionals rely on their computer’s hard drives to maintain productivity, store important data, and communicate with customers.


Yes, everybody relies on a hard drive. It’s not just you. So, what happens when a hard drive fails?

According to, computer problems interrupt workflow and interfere with employee productivity by shutting down their work day. Not only does this create a backlog in work, it results in loss of profit or even to a loss of potential customers.

There are definitely consequences if a hard drive fails. Businesses have no choice but to implement a few preventative measures to minimize the chances of it happening prematurely. The good news is that businesses can maintain their computer’s health without involving too much time or resources.


Here are a couple of tips that you can follow to maintain your hard drive. As you will notice, these tips aren’t just good for your computer in the workplace for your computer at home as well.

The first easy-to-follow tip is to be careful when installing and downloading a software.

Computers may start acting funny after installing a computer program downloaded from the Internet. Each software installation requires hard drive space, or may contain a virus or malware.

The more programs you install, the less space the computer has. Although your computer uses memory to run programs, it also uses the hard drive to help decrease the load times. If your hard drive is full, it will definitely slow down the computer.


The second easy-to-follow tip is to stick to software that’s work related.

The Information Technology departments often block everyone from downloading software programs for a reason. Downloading software programs from the Internet without scanning them for viruses is a dangerous practice, and it can cripple a business in minutes.

Whether you’re in the office or using your personal computer, be sure to use a reputable anti-virus program and firewall to manage incoming traffic and access to the PC. It’s a good rule of thumb to only install trustworthy programs that will help business operations.


You can also apply that same rule of thumb with your home computer. You need to make sure that the software you’re downloading is trustworthy. Of course, it’s always hard to tell is a software if trustworthy and that’s why you need a strong anti-virus in both your work and home computers.

The third easy-to-follow tip is something that you need to do at all times. You need to update your operating system regularly.

By updating your operating system, you are ensuring that you have critical updates to make your system run better, and eliminate issues that could ultimately cause hard drive failure. Most businesses use Microsoft Windows as their primary operating system.

Microsoft Windows allows users to update the operating system on a regular basis by accessing the “Windows Update” on their computer, and in most cases this can be updated automatically.


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Cloud Storage for Businesses: Top 5 Compared

More companies than ever before have embraced cloud storage. So whether you are in the office, on the road, or at home, you can access your files from everywhere. Not only that, cloud computing provides offsite storage of data, thus ensuring your digital security. When it comes to cloud storage, the big divide is between […]


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How to Create Availability Zones in OpenStack from Command Line

In OpenStack terminology, Availability Zones (AZ) is defined as a logical partition of compute, block storage (Cinder) and network Service (Neutron). Availability zones are required to segregate the work load of production and non-production environment, let me elaborate this statement.


let’s suppose we have a tenant in OpenStack who wants to deploy their VMs in Production and Non-Production, so to create this type of setup in openstack , first we have to identify which computes will be considered as Production and Non-production then we have to create Host-aggregate group where we will add the computes to that host-aggregate group and then we will map that host aggregate to the Availability Zone.

In this tutorial we will demonstrate how to create and use computes availability zones in openstack via command line.

Creating compute availability zones

Whenever OpenStack is deployed, Nova is the default Availability Zone(AZ) created automatically and all the compute nodes belongs to Nova AZ. Run the below openstack command from the controller node to list Availability zones,

~# source openrc
~# openstack availability zone list
| Zone Name | Zone Status |
| internal  | available   |
| nova      | available   |
| nova      | available   |
| nova      | available   |

To list only compute’s availability zones, run the beneath openstack command,

~# openstack availability zone list --compute
| Zone Name | Zone Status |
| internal  | available   |
| nova      | available   |

To list all compute hosts which are mapped to nova availability zone execute the below command,

~# openstack host list | grep -E "Zone|nova"
| Host Name              | Service     | Zone     |
| compute-0-1            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-2            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-4            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-3            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-8            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-6            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-9            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-5            | compute     | nova     |
| compute-0-7            | compute     | nova     |

Let’s create a two host-aggregate group with name production and non-production, add compute-4,5 & 6 to production host aggregate group and compute-7,8 & 9 to non-production host aggregate group.

Create Production and Non-Production Host aggregate using following OpenStack commands,

~# openstack aggregate create production
| Field             | Value                      |
| availability_zone | None                       |
| created_at        | 2019-08-17T03:02:41.561259 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| id                | 7                          |
| name              | production                 |
| updated_at        | None                       |

~# openstack aggregate create non-production
| Field             | Value                      |
| availability_zone | None                       |
| created_at        | 2019-08-17T03:02:53.806713 |
| deleted           | False                      |
| deleted_at        | None                       |
| id                | 10                         |
| name              | non-production             |
| updated_at        | None                       |

Now create the availability zones and associate it to its respective host aggregate groups


# openstack aggregate set –zone <az_name>  <host_aggregate_name>

~# openstack aggregate set --zone production-az production
~# openstack aggregate set --zone non-production-az non-production

Finally add the compute host to its host-aggregate group


# openstack aggregate add host <host_aggregate_name>  <compute_host>

~# openstack aggregate add host production compute-0-4
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How to Setup Disk Quota on XFS File System in Linux Servers

Managing Disk quota on file systems is one of the most common day to day operation tasks for Linux admins, in this article we will demonstrate how to setup disk quota on XFS file system / partition on Linux Servers like CentOS, RHEL, Ubuntu and Debian. Here Disk quota means implementing limit on disk usage and file or inode usage.


Disk quota on XFS file system is implemented as followings:

  • User Quota
  • Group Quota
  • Project Quota (or Directory Quota)

To setup disk quota on XFS file system, first we must enable quota using following mount options:

  • uquota: Enable user quota & also enforce usage limits.
  • uqnoenforce: Enable user quota and report usage but don’t enforce usage limits.
  • gquota: Enable group quota & also enforce usage limits.
  • gqnoenforce: Enable group quota and report usage, but don’t enforce usage limits.
  • prjquota / pquota:  Enable project quota & enforce usage limits.
  • pqnoenforce:  Enable project quota and report usage but don’t enforce usage limits.

In article we will implement user & group disk quota on /home partition and apart from this we will also see how to setup  inode quota on /home file system and project quota on /var file system.

[[email protected] ~]# df -Th /home /var
Filesystem           Type  Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/Vol-home xfs    16G   33M   16G   1% /home
/dev/mapper/Vol-var  xfs    18G   87M   18G   1% /var
[[email protected] ~]#

Enable User and Group Quota on /home

Unmount /home partition and then edit the /etc/fstab file,

[[email protected] ~]# umount /home/

Add uquota and gquota after default keyword for /home partition in /etc/fstab file, example is shown below

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/fstab
/dev/mapper/Vol-home   /home    xfs    defaults,uquota,gquota   0 0 


Now mount the /home partition using below “mount -a” command,

[[email protected] ~]# mount -a
[[email protected] ~]#

Verify whether quota is enabled on /home or not,

[[email protected] ~]# mount | grep  /home
/dev/mapper/Vol-home on /home type xfs (rw,relatime,seclabel,attr2,inode64,usrquota,grpquota)
[[email protected] ~]#

Note : While umounting /home partition if you get /home is busy then edit the fstab file, add uquota and gquota keywords after default keyword for /home partition and then reboot your system. After reboot we will see that quota is enabled on /home.

Quota on XFS file system is managed by the command line tool called “xfs_quota“. xfs_quota works in two modes:

  • Basic Mode – For this mode, simply type xfs_quota then you will enter basic mode there you can print disk usage of all file system and disk quota for users, example is show below


  • Expert Mode – This mode is invoked using “-x” option in “xfs_quota” command, as the name suggests this mode is used to configure disk and file quota for local users on xfs file system.

To print disk quota on any file system, let’s say /home, use the following command,

[[email protected] ~]# xfs_quota -x -c 'report -h' /home
User quota on /home (/dev/mapper/Vol-home)
User ID      Used   Soft   Hard Warn/Grace
---------- ---------------------------------
root            0      0      0  00 [------]
pkumar        12K      0      0  00 [------]

Group quota on /home (/dev/mapper/Vol-home)
Group ID     Used   Soft   Hard Warn/Grace
---------- ---------------------------------
root            0      0      0  00 [------]
pkumar        12K      0      0  00 
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10 WordPress Themes to Flourish With A Startup Online

Be ready to impress your target audience with your top-notch startup web presence. To help you get started, we share with you 10 most-wanted WordPress themes for consulting and startups of this summer.

The post 10 WordPress Themes to Flourish With A Startup Online appeared first on WPWebHost.

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Learn how to Install LXD / LXC Containers from Scratch

Let me start by explaining what a container is, it is normal process on the host machine (any Linux based m/c) with following characteristics,

  • It feels like a VM, but it is not.
  • Uses the host Kernel.
  • Cannot boot a different Operating System.
  • Can’t have its own modules.
  • Does not need “init” as PID (Process id) as “1”


LXC (LinuX Containers) technology was developed long ago and is an Operating System level virtualization technology. This was existing from the days of BSD and System-V Release 4 (Popular Unix flavors during 1980-90’s). But until recently, no one new how much it can help us in saving in terms of resource utilization. Because of this technology change, all enterprises are moving towards adoption of virtualization (be it Cloud or be it Docker containers). This also helped in better management of OpEX(Operational expenditures) and CaPEX(Captial expenditures) costs. Using this technique, we can create and run multiple and isolated Linux virtual environments on a single Linux host machine (called control host). LXC mainly uses Linux’s cgroups and namespaces functionalities, which were introduced in version 2.6.24(kernel version) onwards. In parallel many advancements in hypervisors happened like that of KVM, QEMU, Hyper-V, ESXi etc. Especially KVM (Kernel Virtual Machine) which is core of Linux OS, helped in this kind of advancement.

Difference between LXC and LXD is that LXC is the original and older way to manage containers but it is still supported, all commands of LXC starts with “lxc-“ like “lxc-create” & “lxc-info“, whereas LXD is a new way to manage containers and lxc command is used for all containers operations and management.

All of us know that “Docker” utilizes LXC and was developed using Go language, cgroups, namespaces and finally the Linux Kernel itself. Complete Docker has been built and developed using LXC as the basic foundation block. Docker is completely dependent on underlying infrastructure & hardware and using the Operating System as the medium. However, Docker is a portable and easily deployable container engine; all its dependencies are run using a virtual container on most of the Linux based servers. Groups, and Namespaces are the building block concepts for both LXC and Docker containers. Following are the brief description of these concepts.

C Groups (Control Groups)

With Cgroups each resource will have its own hierarchy.

  • CPU, Memory, I/O etc will have their own control group hierarchy. Following are various characterics of Cgroups,
  •  Each process is in each node
  • Each hierarchy starts with one node
  • Initially all processes start at the root node. Therefore “each node” is equivalent to “group of processes”.
  • Hierarchies are independent, ex: CPU, Block I/O, memory etc

As explained earlier there are various Cgroup types as listed below,

1) Memory Cgroups

a) Keeps track of pages used by each group.

b) File read/write/mmap from block devices

c) Anonymous memory(stack, heap etc)

d) Each memory page is charged to a group

e) Pages can be shared across multiple groups

2) CPU Cgroups

a) Track users/system cpu time

b)  Track usage per CPU

c) Allows set to weights

d) Can’t set cpu limits

3) Block IO Cgroup

a) Keep track of read/write(I/O’s)

b) Set throttle (limits) for each group …

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Mounting Issues On Your Mac Can Be Resolved

It’s not a dreadful message. Nonetheless, it still is an alarming one. You don’t want to to see the message “Disk Not Ejected Properly” on your screen, do you?

The message “Disk Not Ejected Properly” usually appears when you unplug a cable or disconnect power to a drive without making sure the disk has unmounted from the Finder after selecting it and choosing File > Eject [Name] or clicking the Eject icon next to its name in the sidebar.


It’s a message you don’t expect to see, especially if you’ve just successfully ejected the drive. The thing is, it happens and maybe, you shouldn’t ignore it.

When you mount a drive in the Finder, you expect it to stay there. If you’ve found that your previously reliable external hard disk drive or SSD starts ejecting itself, trouble is obviously afoot.


Here’s something you should do right away when you do see that message.

If unexpected unmountings continue, try to make a backup immediately. This may reveal other problems, but it’s important you have as current a copy of what’s on that drive as possible, as the hardware may be about to die—or the drive may at least be hard to access while you work through solutions.


Mac expert, Glenn Fleishman, shares some possibilities as to why your Mac is not mounting. He also shares some helpful troubleshooting tips.

• A bad cable. Even if you haven’t touched the cable since you attached an external drive years ago to a desktop computer, cables can fail. This is true even if it’s the one included with the drive or you purchased one from a company with strong positive product reviews. Cable failure is more likely for drives that are routinely connected and disconnected to a computer. Swap another identical cable, as it’s the cheapest way to isolate the problem.
• A faulty power connection. Check that the adapter is plugged in to the drive firmly and that the AC power plug isn’t jiggling in the outlet or surge protector. If the drive has a power light separate from an activity LED, observe it and see if it’s flickering or otherwise inconstant. Even with a power light, it can be tough to monitor and hard to test if a power adapter is the culprit, because AC power adapters are rarely the same among different companies (or even models of drive from the same company). You may need to call the company or use online tech support to get additional troubleshooting. The company may be able to send you free or for a small fee a replacement adapter if it thinks that’s the problem.
• The drive’s case is going bad. This is another hard thing to diagnose separate from the drive. A drive has its own operating system, circuit boards, and chips, but a case also has components, firmware, and a power supply (unless it’s powered via the USB or Thunderbolt 3 bus). If you think the drive is fine and the case is a problem, you may be able to swap the drive into another case to test. Cases for 2.5-inch (mobile) and 3.5-inch (desktop) drives can be very inexpensive—as little as $10

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How to Set Up a Blogging Strategy for Your WordPress Site

Many site owners make the mistake of diving head first into blogging without a solid, long term plan. The first step to establishing a blogging strategy is to lay out a content calendar, and more importantly, stick to it!

The post How to Set Up a Blogging Strategy for Your WordPress Site appeared first on WPWebHost.

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Is Cloud Accounting Good For Business?

Cloud accounting it very popular nowadays. There’s a good reason why. Making use of the cloud cuts down on the use and cost of external hard drives.

Cloud Accounting is trending and for all good reasons. Gone are the days, when you needed multiple hard drives to keep a store of the financial data. A description of Cloud Accounting in simple terms is Online Accounting.


While it might seem like a radical way of storing financial records, it has become a practice these days.

All the records of financial information are saved online on a server rather than the hard drive of your computer.

As crazy as it sounds like trusting some virtual servers for saving the financial records of your business, cloud accounting is, in fact, more secure, safe, cheap, and smart way for accounting.


As a matter of fact, there will be more and more businesses turning to the cloud by the year 2020.

There are numerous reasons why more than 75% of businesses are expected to turn to cloud accounting over traditional financial recordings by the year 2020.


One good reason as to why more and more businesses are turning to the cloud is because they can see the numbers clearly at any time. The cloud makes it possible to see their financial standing in real-time. Another good reason is that cloud accounting allows multi-user access. In simple terms, everybody can work on the same file.

No one has to worry about missing out on updates. Cloud accounting removes that layer of conflict since updates and backups are automatic. The best thing about cloud accounting is that it reduces business costs. The need to procure hard drives is lessened and the fact that the backups are updated means you can always get back your files in case of catastrophe.

There is no doubt that cloud accounting is good for business. The question is, is it good for yours?
Before you jump right into cloud accounting, it’s important that you list down your business needs first. That way, you’ll know exactly the kind of cloud service that’s right for you.

There are over hundreds of cloud accounting service providers. It is essential that you understand why you need one and how will it help you.

It is advisable to contact a consultant and explain the need for software keeping in mind the monthly expense and other factors like future growth and business goals.


Make sure to study the cloud service provider very well.

After accomplishing the first step, the next step is to find a perfect match for your needs. Based on your business size, needs and demands, there are tons of available options. It is essential to read and know about the software before investing in one based on your company’s needs.


Don’t just settle for a business that can automatically update and backup your financial records. Settle for a service or a software than has a good contingency plan in place.

The thing about cloud computing is that it’s internet-based. There is no way you can get back your files if there is no internet. So, what happens if you can’t …

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Top 8 Things to do after Installing Debian 10 (Buster)

Debian 10 code name Buster is the latest LTS release from the house of Debian and the latest release comes packed with a lot of features. So if you have already installed the Debian 10 in your system and thinking what next, then please continue reading the article till the end as we provide you with the top 8 things to do after installing Debian 10. For those who haven’t installed Debian 10, please read this guide Debian 10 (Buster) Installation Steps with Screenshots. So lets continue with the article:


1) Install and Configure sudo

Once you complete setting up Debian 10 in your system, the first thing you need to do is install the sudo package as it enables you to get administrative privileges to install any package you need. In order to install and configure sudo, please use the following command:

Become the root user and then install sudo package using the beneath command,

[email protected]:~$ su -
[email protected]:~# apt install sudo -y

Add your local user to sudo group using the following usermod command,

[email protected]:~# usermod -aG sudo  pkumar
[email protected]:~#

Now verify whether local user got the sudo rights or not,

[email protected]:~$ id
uid=1000(pkumar) gid=1000(pkumar) groups=1000(pkumar),27(sudo)
[email protected]:~$ sudo vi /etc/hosts
[sudo] password for pkumar:
[email protected]:~$

2) Fix Date and time

Once you’ve successfully configured the sudo package, next thing you need to  fix the date and time according to your location. In order to fix the date and time,

Go to System Settings –> Details –> Date and Time and then change your time zone that suits to your location.


Once the time zone is changed, you can see the time changed automatically in your clock

3) Apply all updates

After Debian 10 installation, it is recommended to install all updates which are available via Debian 10 package repositories, execute the beneath apt command,

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt update
[email protected]:~$ sudo apt upgrade -y

Note: If you are a big fan of vi editor then install vim using the following command apt command,

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install vim -y

4) Install Flash Player Plugin

By default, the Debian 10 (Buster) repositories don’t come packed with the Flash plugin and hence users looking to install flash player in their system need to follow the steps outlined below:

Configure Repository for flash player:

[email protected]:~$ echo "deb buster main contrib" | sudo tee -a  /etc/apt/sources.list
deb buster main contrib
[email protected]:~

Now update package index using following command,

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt update

Install flash plugin using following apt command

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install pepperflashplugin-nonfree -y

Once package is installed successfully, then try to play videos in YouTube,


5)  Install Software like VLC, SKYPE, FileZilla and Screenshot tool

So now we’ve enabled flash player, it is time to install all other software like VLC, Skype, Filezilla and screenshot tool like flameshot in our Debian 10 system.

Install VLC Media Player

To install VLC player in your system using apt command,

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install vlc -y

After the successful installation of VLC player, try to play your favorite videos


Install Skype:

First download the latest Skype package as shown below:

[email protected]:~$ wget

Next install the package using the apt command as shown below:

[email protected]:~$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

After …

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