How to Create and Add EBS Volume in AWS Instance

In this topic, we shed light on how you can add or attach an EBS (Elastic Block Storage) volume on an AWS instance. An extra  EBS volume supplements storage space for your instance. Once attached to the AWS instance, the EBS volume becomes a block device that is later formatted and mounted to make it available for use. Once available for use, the block device becomes accessible just like any other volume and thereby supplement storage space for your AWS instance. Let’s see how this can be achieved.


Step 1: Confirm the availability zone of your AWS instance

To start off, log in to your AWS console and confirm the availability zone of your EC2 instance. For this exercise to succeed, The EBS volume, as well as the AWS instance, ought to be in the same  availability zone

Our AWS instance in this guide sits at the us-east-2c availability zone. Therefore, we must create an EBS volume in the same region


Step 2: Creating an EBS volume

Before creating a new volume, let’s have a peek at the block devices available in our instance. Run the command :

# lsblk


From the above output, we can clearly see that there’s only one block device xvda, with a single partition xvda1. To get more detailed output, run the fdisk -l command:

# fdisk -l


Now let’s add a new volume. On the left section of your AWS dashboard, locate and click on the  ‘Volumes’ option under the Elastic Block Store section as shown.


A pre-existing volume will be displayed on the next page. This volume was created during the creation of your AWS EC2 instance.

To add another volume, click on the ‘Create Volume’ button

Click-Create- volume-aws

Fill in the details of the volume in the next window.

NOTE: Ensure the availability zone of the volume you are creating matches that of your AWS instance. The availability zone, in our case ,  is  us-east-2c.


After filling out all the essential details, click the ‘Create volume’ button.


The new volume will be created and displayed as shown


The new volume’s state is indicated as ‘available’ and not ‘in use’ like the other volume. This is because It’s not yet associated with the AWS instance.

For the volume to be part of the instance, click on the ‘Actions’ button and click on ‘attach volume


In the pop-up dialogue fill in the details accordingly and click on ‘Attach


Back to Volumes. If you take a closer look at the new volume status, you will notice that is has changed from ‘Available’ to ‘in-use’. This means that the volume has been integrated and is now a part of the ec2 instance.


To confirm the presence of the block volume, run the lsblk command


This can also be confirmed using the fdisk -l command


Step 3: Mounting the newly added EBS volume

Up until this point, we have managed to successfully create and add the EBS volume to an instance. However, we cannot access or save any data on the volume. In fact, the volume is empty and you can confirm this using the command:

# file -x /dev/xvdf


The …

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How to Install Docker CE on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

Docker is a daemon-based container engine which allows us to deploy applications inside containers. With the release of RHEL 8 and CentOS 8, docker package has been removed from their default package repositories, docker has been replaced with podman and buildah.


If are comfortable with docker and deploy most the applications inside the docker containers and does not want to switch to podman then this tutorial will guide you on how to install and use community version of docker on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 system.

Docker is available in two versions,

  • Docker CE (Community Edition)
  • Enterprise Edition (EE)

In this guide we will learn how to install Docker CE (Community Edition) on CentOS 8 or RHEL 8 Server.

System Requirements for Docker CE

  • Minimal CentOS 8 / RHEL 8
  • Sudo or root privileges
  • Internet Connection

Installation Steps of Docker CE on CentOS 8/RHEL 8 Server

Step:1) Enable Docker CE Repository

As we said above, docker packages are not available anymore on CentOS 8 or RHEL 8 package repositories, run following dnf command to enable Docker CE package repository.

[[email protected] ~]# dnf config-manager --add-repo=

Step:2) Install Docker CE using dnf command

Once the docker ce repo has been configured successfully then run following command to verify which version of docker is available for installation

[[email protected] ~]# dnf list docker-ce
Available Packages
docker-ce.x86_64              3:19.03.5-3.el7                                           docker-ce-stable
[[email protected] ~]#

Now, use beneath dnf command to install latest version of docker,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install docker-ce --nobest -y

After the installation of docker, start and enable its service using the following systemctl commands

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start docker
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable docker

Run the following command to verify installed docker version

[[email protected] ~]# docker --version
Docker version 18.06.3-ce, build d7080c1
[[email protected] ~]#

Step:3) Verify and test Docker CE Engine

To verify whether docker ce engine has been setup correctly or not, try to spin up a “hello-world” container using below docker command,

[[email protected] ~]# docker run hello-world

Output of above command


As we can see the informational message in above output which confirms docker engine is setup correctly on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 Server. Let’s move to docker compose installation.

Step:4) Install Docker Compose

As we know that docker compose is used to link multiple containers using a single command. In other words, Docker Compose is useful where we need to launch multiple containers and these containers depends on each other. Examples like launching LAMP/ LEMP applications (WordPress & Joomla etc) insider containers.

Run the following commands to install docker compose on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install curl -y
[[email protected] ~]# curl -L "$(uname -s)-$(uname -m)" -o /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

Note: Replace the “1.25.0” with docker compose version that you want to install but at this point of time this is the latest and stable version of docker compose.

Set the executable permission to docker-compose binary

[[email protected] ~]# chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

Verify the docker compose version by running the following command.

[[email protected] ~]# docker-compose --version
docker-compose version 1.25.0, build 0a186604
[[email protected] ~]#

That’s all from this tutorial, I hope these steps help you to setup docker and docker compose on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 server.

Read Also: How to Use docker-compose to launch containers

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How To Store Emails In An External Storage

When the first computer debuted for the public, most people used it as a form of communication. When emails made it to computers, the communication world was opened even more. You can reach anyone around the world. All that’s needed is one account. Or more. Today, you can choose from different email providers like Zoho, Gmail, Proton, Outlook, Yahoo, and more.

Like our documents, photos, videos, and other media content, programs and software, our emails can be just as important. They are forms of documented conversations between two parties that can come handy and helpful one day. Therefore, they should be stored in another storage device or the cloud as well. Simply put, emails are important too and should be backed up.

Storing your email archives for a long time can be done in different ways. There’s external storage, network, or cloud. Let’s take a look at each of them.

External storage includes external storage devices such as USB, memory cards, external SSD, or the more popular and widely used external hard drive. They are more popular because they offer large storage capacity, portability, and efficiency at a relatively affordable price.

External hard drives are easy to use too. But they can be prone to physical damage.

External hard drives are an attractive solution to long term data storage needs because of the extreme ease of use. In nearly all cases, all you need to do is to plug the hard drive into your computer with a USB cable and the drive is displayed to you in the file manager. From this point, all you need to do is to drag and drop your data files, such as your email archives, directly to this drive and they are copied. The only possible concerns for these devices arise if you travel with them or move them around often. There is only one hard drive inside and the reliability of that hard drive depends on the precision of the mechanical parts of the drive being able to read the disk. Dropping the drive can cause internal mechanical damage which, in some cases, can result in loss of your data.



Saving through a network, or more commonly called Network Attached Storage (NAS) is another way. But it can be complicated.

Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices are a bit more complex than simple USB-based external hard drives. This is because NAS devices include the ability to connect to your home’s network using either Wi-Fi or Ethernet and then to offer data archive access for any computer connected to your home network. Such devices can be made more reliable than an external hard drive because you can configure some models into various RAID options to minimize the risk of data loss. A RAID configuration is one in which each disk in a multiple-disk system is a backup for its partners; if one disk fails, its data can be recovered from another. It also possible to create a NAS solution yourself if you have a desktop computer in your home with an internal hard drive bay that is not being used. Adding an inexpensive hard drive to such a machine is a solution you can consider if you like the idea of

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Working WPWebHost Promo Codes and Coupons

WPWebHost is a popular managed WordPress hosting provider with lots of positive reviews. Use one of these verified coupons to get a discount on your order. Use this promo code to get 30% off at WPWebHost Get 30% off Select Plans at WPWebHost Use one of these 2 coupon codes to get 30% off select […]


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Different Types of Programs For Your Computer

Have you ever wondered what kind of program you are using for a specific task? Or do you just simply use one without minding what type it is? Whatever the case is, computers need programs in order for a software to run. Programs perform specific tasks depending on what you choose. They help us do our tasks when we’re using the computer.

Programs are instructions. And the first ones created were only 17. Today, the number has surpassed a billion. Pretty extreme, huh? To put it simply, programs are what comprise a software. A software is a collection of programs that you run for it to perform a task. And by run, you need to open it.

These programs or software have been helping us today in every task we do. It’s true because they are also on our phones and tablets which makes computing a whole lot easier and portable.

There are several software for productivity tasks. These might be one of the first ones developed and arguably the most widely used programs. This is because they are efficient and can multitask.

Productivity applications comprise some of the most commonly used software programs in the world, especially in work settings. One of the reasons people use computers is to take advantage of the efficiencies of productivity software. The two most common types of productivity programs are word processors for typing and formatting documents, and spreadsheets for organizing and tabulating numerical data. Other productivity software includes slideshow applications for giving lectures and presentations, formula editors for writing mathematical equations, and media editing programs for making graphics, video and sound.


Computer programs also exist for web or internet use in the form of web applications.

The Internet is another reason people use computers, and a variety of computer programs facilitate different kinds of Internet use. Web browsers download and render HTML content into the Web pages that dominate the Internet. Email clients make possible the exchange of virtual correspondence. FTP clients enable the upload and download of files to a Web server — a common part of maintaining a website. Chat clients and messaging programs let people type, talk and videoconference with one another. Many programs, such as weather widgets and stock market tickers, have an online component that continuously updates the information on your computer.


And of course, game and leisure programs. Arguably, these are what make a person stay glued on their computers. Some don’t really like spending hours and hours doing work-related tasks. But playing games? This is true for some people, and some people only. The same goes for leisure.

The video games industry has grown bigger than the motion picture industry, and many people play games on their computers, tablets and phones. Different video game genres include card and board games, story-oriented adventures, sports simulators, puzzle games, shooters and fighting games, action-oriented platforms, strategy games, mysteries, music games and massively multiplayer games. There are also nongame leisure programs, such as electronic book readers you use to read electronic books on your computer and media players that you use to watch movies or listen to music.


Other programs.

Other types of widely used computer programs include utility programs

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How to Manage Remote Windows Host using Ansible

Ansible is increasingly becoming the go-to platform for application deployment, and software provisioning among developers owing to its ease of use and flexibility. Furthermore, it is easy to set up and no agent s required to be installed on remote nodes, instead, Ansible uses password less SSH authentication to manage remote Unix/Linux hosts. In this topic, however, we are going to see how you can manage Windows Hosts using Ansible.


Lab setup

We shall use the setup below to accomplish our objective

  • Ansible Control node              CentOS 8                      IP:
  • Windows 10 node                    Windows 10                 IP:

Part 1: Installing Ansible on the Control node (CentOS 8)

Before anything else, we need to get Ansible installed on the Control node which is the CentOS 8 system.

Step 1:  Verify that Python3 is installed on Ansible control node

Firstly, we need to confirm if Python3 is installed. CentOS 8 ships with Python3 but if it’s missing for any reason, install using the command:

# sudo dnf install python3

Next, make Python3 the default Python version by running:

# sudo alternatives --set python /usr/bin/python3

To verify if python3 is installed, run the command:

# python --version


Step 2: Install a virtual environment for running Ansible

For this exercise, an isolated environment for running and testing Ansible is preferred. This will keep at bay issues such as dependency problems and package conflicts. The isolated environment we are going to create is called a virtual environment.

Firstly, let’s begin with the installation of the virtual environment on CentOS 8.

# sudo dnf install python3-virtualenv


After the installation of the virtual environment, create a virtual workspace by running:

# virtualenv env


# source env/bin/activate


Great! Observer that the prompt has now changed to (env).

Step 3: Install Ansible

After the creation of the virtual environment, proceed and install Ansible automation tool using pip as shown:

# pip install ansible


You can later confirm the installation of Ansible using the command:

# ansible --version


To test Ansible and see if it’s working on our Ansible Control server run:

# ansible localhost -m ping


Great! Next, we need to define the Windows host system on a host file on the Ansible control node. Therefore, open the default hosts file

# vim /etc/ansible/hosts

Define the Windows hosts as shown below.


Note: The username and password point to the user on the Windows host system.

Next, save and exit the configuration file.

Step 4: Install Pywinrm

Unlike in Unix systems where Ansible uses SSH to communicate with remote hosts, with Windows it’s a different story altogether. To communicate with Windows hosts, you need to install Winrm.

To install winrm, once again, use pip toll as shown:

# pip install pywinrm


Part 2: Configuring Windows Host

In this section, we are going to configure our Windows 10 remote host system to connect with the Ansible Control node. We are going to install the WinRM listener- short for Windows Remote – which will allow the connection between the Windows host system and the Ansible server.

But before we do so, your Windows host system needs to fulfill a few requirements for the installation to succeed:

  • Your Windows host system should be Windows 7 or later. For Servers, ensure that you are
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How to Install Ansible (Automation Tool) on CentOS 8/RHEL 8

Ansible is an awesome automation tool for Linux sysadmins. It is an open source configuration tool which allows sysadmins to manage hundreds of servers from one centralize node i.e Ansible Server. Ansible is the preferred configuration tool when it is compared with similar tools like Puppet, Chef and Salt because it doesn’t need any agent and it works on SSH and python.


In this tutorial we will learn how to install and use Ansible on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 system

Ansible Lab Details:

  • Minimal CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 Server ( with Internet Connectivity
  • Two Ansible Nodes – Ubuntu 18.04 LTS ( & CentOS 7 (

Ansible Installation steps on CentOS 8 

Ansible package is not available in default CentOS 8 package repository. so we need to enable EPEL Repository by executing the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install -y

Once the epel repository is enabled, execute the following dnf command to install Ansible

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install ansible

Output of above command :


Once the ansible is installed successfully, verify its version by running the following command

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo ansible --version


Above output confirms that Installation is completed successfully on CentOS 8.

Let’s move to RHEL 8 system

Ansible Installation steps on RHEL 8

If you have a valid RHEL 8 subscription then use following subscription-manager command to enable Ansible Repo,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable ansible-2.8-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms

Once the repo is enabled then execute the following dnf command to install Ansible,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install ansible -y

Once the ansible and its dependent packages are installed then verify ansible version by executing the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo ansible --version

Alternate Way to Install Ansible via pip3 on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

If you wish to install Ansible using pip (python’s package manager) then first install pyhton3 and python3-pip packages using following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo dnf install python3 python3-pip -y

After pyhthon3 installation, verify its version by running

[[email protected] ~]$ python3 -V
Python 3.6.8
[[email protected] ~]$

Now run below pip3 command to install Ansible,

[[email protected] ~]$ pip3 install ansible --user



Above output confirms that Ansible has been installed successfully using pip3. Let’s see how we can use Ansible

How to Use Ansible Automation Tool?

When we install Ansible using yum or dnf command then its configuration file, inventory file and roles directory created automatically under /etc/ansible folder.

So, let’s add a group with name “labservers” and under this group add ubuntu 18.04 and CentOS 7 System’s ip address in /etc/ansible/hosts file

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo vi /etc/ansible/hosts

Save & exit file.

Once the inventory file (/etc/ansible/hosts) is updated then exchange your user’s ssh public keys with remote systems which are part of “labservers” group.

Let’s first generate your local user’s public and private key using ssh-keygen command,

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-keygen

Now exchange public key between the ansible server and its clients using the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-copy-id [email protected]
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-copy-id [email protected]

Now let’s try couple of Ansible commands, first verify the connectivity from Ansible server to its clients using ping module,

[[email protected] ~]$ ansible -m ping "labservers"

Note: If we don’t specify the inventory file in above …

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How To Transfer Files Between Computers

Transferring files from one computer to another is important. Think of it like transferring dinner plates from the cupboard to the dinner table. You can carry them by hand. You can use a tray. You can use a trolley. And you can ask someone to carry them for you. But definitely cannot throw them though. Anyway, there are many ways on how to transfer a file from one computer to another. And this article will show you how.


The ideal way to go will depend on the number or amount of files you want to be transferred and the computer that will do the transferring and receiving. Transferring from PC to PC can be easy. But from a PC to Mac or vice-versa can be tricky.


Using external storage devices is the simplest. A USB or external hard drive can be connected to the computer, copy the files, safely remove it (or not), then plug it into a Mac or PC to transfer the files.

Transferring files to a USB drive or an external drive and then to another computer has the added benefit of supplying you with backup copies of your files, but it’s one of the slowest methods and comes with added expense. You’ll need to purchase the storage device, which can range in price from less than $50 to a few hundred dollars, depending on size and other features.



Files can also be transferred through a local network.

You may be able to transfer files between computers on the same network if both computers are within range. When configured correctly, computers on the same network can access each other’s hard drives and files can easily be moved between them. In Windows 10, simply access the file or folder you want to move in File Explorer, press the right mouse button over it and select Give access to. A dropdown menu displays the options Specific people and Remove Access that allow you to enable or disable access to the file by other network users.

You can also use the Nearby Sharing feature in Windows 10 to share files with nearby computers and tablets running Windows 10 over Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. First, enable the feature under Shared experiences in Settings on both computers. Then access the file you want to share in File Explorer, press the right mouse button and select Share. The Share panel is displayed, showing other enabled devices within range for sharing. When you select a device, a notification will be sent saying the file has been shared.



Cloud Storage. The ever-reliable cloud. Google’s version, Google Drive, Microsoft’s OneDrive, and Dropbox are some of the popular cloud storage services. They make storage and transfer a whole lot easier especially from PC to Mac or vice-versa. Just open them in a browser and download the files you need.

You have the advantage of being able to preserve the file structure on your computer by uploading entire folders rather than individual files. Many cloud storage providers offer free accounts with a minimal amount of storage, though you may have to pay extra if you want to upload a large amount of data.



Transferring to …

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