How To Back Up Data On Your Android Smartphone Or Tablet

Backing up data isn’t only for your PC or laptop. There’s nothing like losing important data because of accidental deletion or a misplaced folder or location. When it comes to smartphones and tablets, you can always back them up by storing some data on your computer from your device. But if this isn’t an option for you or if your computer is almost full, other backup processes can be done instead.

Devices that store data like smartphones and tablets need to be backed up as well. You use your smartphone almost every time and take it with you wherever you go. Therefore, it only makes sense to back it up.

Back in the day, backing up phones is a tedious process. But today, it has become less dreary and confusing. Everyone’s got a different Android version on their device. But these steps can still apply to the recent ones. Android allows backing up from your Google account.

First step, you need to turn on the backup settings.

Open the Settings menu and look for Backup and reset. Check that the Back up my data option is enabled under Google account and that the correct Google account is shown under Backup account — tap this section to add another account, if necessary.
Also check that Automatic restore is enabled, this backs up your app settings.

After turning it on, you can now decide on what to sync with your Google account. Among these are your contacts, calendar, Google Drive, etc.

Go to Settings – Accounts and tap your Google account and you’ll see a list of what is being backed up to Google’s servers, including: Calendar, Contacts, Drive and Gmail.

Use the sliders to turn back up off.

Another thing you can backup is your photos. Better back them up than lose them.

Back up your photos using the Google Photos app.
The first time you use this it may give you the option to Back up your photos and videos.

Otherwise, launch the Photos app, sign in with the Google account you want to use, then click Settings – Back up & sync and turn on the slider next to Back up & sync.

The next thing is to choose how you want to back up your photos. You have two choices: over wi-fi or mobile data.

By default, backups takes place over wi-fi, but you can choose to use mobile data by tapping the slider next to Photos. If you opt for this make sure you keep an eye on how much data you use.

Google Photos provides ‘unlimited’ online storage for your photos and they’re private unless you share them with someone else. You can view them online at

If in case you lost your device due to theft, physical damage, or other reasons, you can always have access to these files and data if you have successfully backed them up in your Google account.

Log in with your Google account (or iOS account if you are an iPhone user) and all the data back-up related to that account will be restored.

Backing up data is truly an important step to consider …

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14 SCP Command Examples to Securely Transfer Files in Linux

SCP (Secure Copy) is command line tool in Linux and Unix like systems which is used to transfer files and directories across the hosts securely over the network. When we use scp command to copy files and directories from our local system to remote system then in the backend it makes ssh connection to remote system. In other words, we can say scp uses the same SSH security mechanism in the backend, it needs either password or keys for authentication.


In this tutorial we will discuss 14 useful Linux scp command examples.

Syntax of scp command:

# scp <options> <files_or_directories> [email protected]_host:/<folder>

# scp <options> [email protected]_host:/files   <folder_local_system>

In the first syntax of scp command demonstrate how to copy files or directories from local system to target host under the specific folder.

Second syntax of scp command demonstrate how files from target host is copied into local system.

Some of the most widely used options in scp command are listed below,

  •  -C         Enable Compression
  •  -i           identity File or private key
  •  -l           limit the bandwidth while copying
  •  -P          ssh port number of target host
  •  -p          Preserves permissions, modes and access time of files while copying
  •  -q          Suppress warning message of SSH
  •   -r          Copy files and directories recursively
  •   -v          verbose output

Let’s jump into the examples now!!!!

Example:1 Copy a File from local system to remote system using scp

Let’s assume we want to copy jdk rpm package from our local Linux system to remote system ( using scp command, use the following command,

[[email protected] ~]$ scp jdk-linux-x64_bin.rpm [email protected]:/opt
[email protected]'s password:
jdk-linux-x64_bin.rpm                          100%   10MB  27.1MB/s   00:00
[[email protected] ~]$

Above command will copy jdk rpm package file to remote system under /opt folder.

Example:2) Copy a file from remote System to local system using scp

Let’s suppose we want to copy a file from remote system to our local system under the /tmp folder, execute the following scp command,

[[email protected] ~]$ scp [email protected]:/root/Technical-Doc-RHS.odt /tmp
[email protected]'s password:
Technical-Doc-RHS.odt                         100% 1109KB  31.8MB/s   00:00
[[email protected] ~]$ ls -l /tmp/Technical-Doc-RHS.odt
-rwx------. 1 pkumar pkumar 1135521 Oct 19 11:12 /tmp/Technical-Doc-RHS.odt
[[email protected] ~]$

 Example:3) Verbose Output while transferring files using scp (-v)

In scp command, we can enable the verbose output using -v option, using verbose output we can easily find what exactly is happening in the background. This becomes very useful in debugging connection, authentication and configuration problems.

[email protected] ~]$ scp -v jdk-linux-x64_bin.rpm [email protected]:/opt
Executing: program /usr/bin/ssh host, user root, command scp -v -t /opt
OpenSSH_7.8p1, OpenSSL 1.1.1 FIPS  11 Sep 2018
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/05-redhat.conf
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/openssh.config
debug1: /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/05-redhat.conf line 8: Applying options for *
debug1: Connecting to [] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: Next authentication method: password
[email protected]'s password:

Example:4) Transfer multiple files to remote system

Multiple files can be copied / transferred to remote system using scp command in one go, in scp command specify the multiple files separated by space, example is shown below

[[email protected] ~]$ scp install.txt index.html jdk-linux-x64_bin.rpm [email protected]:/mnt
[email protected]'s password:
install.txt                                      100%    0     0.0KB/s   00:00
index.html                                       100%   85KB   7.2MB/s   00:00
jdk-linux-x64_bin.rpm                            100%   10MB  25.3MB/s   00:00
[[email protected] ~]$

Example:5) Transfer files across two remote hosts

Using scp command we can copy files and directories between two remote hosts, let’s suppose we …

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How to Configure Rsyslog Server in CentOS 8 / RHEL 8

Rsyslog is a free and opensource logging utility that exists by default on  CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 systems. It provides an easy and effective way of centralizing logs from client nodes to a single central server. The centralization of logs is beneficial in two ways. First,  it simplifies viewing of logs as the Systems administrator can view all the logs of remote servers from a central point without logging into every client system to check the logs. This is greatly beneficial if there are several servers that need to be monitored and secondly, in the event that a remote client suffers a crash, you need not worry about losing the logs because all the logs will be saved on the central rsyslog server. Rsyslog has replaced syslog which only supported UDP protocol. It extends the basic syslog protocol with superior features such as support for both UDP and TCP protocols in transporting logs, augmented filtering abilities, and flexible configuration options. That said, let’s explore how to configure the Rsyslog server in CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 systems.



We are going to have the following lab setup to test the centralized logging process:

  • Rsyslog server       CentOS 8 Minimal    IP address:
  • Client system         RHEL 8 Minimal      IP address:

From the setup above, we will demonstrate how you can set up the Rsyslog server and later configure the client system to ship logs to the Rsyslog server for monitoring.

Let’s get started!

Configuring the Rsyslog Server on CentOS 8

By default, Rsyslog comes installed on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 servers. To verify the status of Rsyslog, log in via SSH and issue the command:

$ systemctl status rsyslog

Sample Output


If rsyslog is not present for whatever reason, you can install it using the command:

$ sudo yum install rsyslog

Next, you need to modify a few settings in the Rsyslog configuration file. Open the configuration file.

$ sudo vim /etc/rsyslog.conf

Scroll and uncomment the lines shown below to allow reception of logs via UDP protocol

module(load="imudp") # needs to be done just once
input(type="imudp" port="514")


Similarly, if you prefer to enable TCP rsyslog reception uncomment the lines:

module(load="imtcp") # needs to be done just once
input(type="imtcp" port="514")


Save and exit the configuration file.

To receive the logs from the client system,  we need to open Rsyslog default port 514 on the firewall. To achieve this, run

# sudo firewall-cmd  --add-port=514/tcp  --zone=public  --permanent

Next, reload the firewall to save the changes

# sudo firewall-cmd --reload

Sample Output


Next, restart Rsyslog server

$ sudo systemctl restart rsyslog

To enable Rsyslog on boot, run beneath command

$ sudo systemctl enable rsyslog

To confirm that the Rsyslog server is listening on port 514, use the netstat command as follows:

$ sudo netstat -pnltu

Sample Output


Perfect! we have successfully configured our Rsyslog server to receive logs from the client system.

To view log messages in real-time run the command:

$ tail -f /var/log/messages

Let’s now configure the client system.

Configuring the client system on RHEL 8

Like the Rsyslog server, log in and check if the rsyslog daemon is running by issuing the command:

$ sudo systemctl status rsyslog

Sample Output


Next, proceed to open the rsyslog configuration file

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Cloud Hosting Vs. Shared Hosting: Which One Is Right For You

Opting for the right hosting is a crucial decision to make, as it is the bedrock of your business website. There is a bevy of web hosting options made available today. Two such examples are cloud hosting and shared hosting, which you are very likely to come across when searching for a solution. Having a […]


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How to Enable EPEL Repository on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 Server

EPEL Stands for Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux, it is a free and opensource additional packages repository available for CentOS and RHEL servers. As the name suggests, EPEL repository provides extra and additional packages which are not available in the default package repositories of CentOS 8 and RHEL 8.

In this article we will demonstrate how to enable and use epel repository on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 Server.


Prerequisites of EPEL Repository

  • Minimal CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 Server
  • Root or sudo admin privileges
  • Internet Connection

Install and Enable EPEL Repository on RHEL 8.x Server

Login or ssh to your RHEL 8.x server and execute the following dnf command to install EPEL rpm package,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install -y

Output of above command would be something like below,


Once epel rpm package is installed successfully then it will automatically enable and configure its yum / dnf repository.  Run following dnf or yum command to verify whether EPEL repository is enabled or not,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf repolist epel
[[email protected] ~]# dnf repolist epel -v


Install and Enable EPEL Repository on CentOS 8.x Server

Login or ssh to your CentOS 8 server and execute following dnf or yum command to install ‘epel-release‘ rpm package. In CentOS 8 server, epel rpm package is available in its default package repository.

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install epel-release -y
[[email protected] ~]# yum install epel-release -y

Execute the following commands to verify the status of epel repository on CentOS 8 server,

 [[email protected] ~]# dnf repolist epel
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:03 ago on Sun 13 Oct 2019 04:18:05 AM BST.
repo id                                    repo name                                                                          status
*epel                                      Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 8 - x86_64                                     1,977
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]# dnf repolist epel -v
Repo-id      : epel
Repo-name    : Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 8 - x86_64
Repo-status  : enabled
Repo-revision: 1570844166
Repo-updated : Sat 12 Oct 2019 02:36:32 AM BST
Repo-pkgs    : 1,977
Repo-size    : 2.1 G
  Updated    : Sun 13 Oct 2019 04:28:24 AM BST
Repo-baseurl : rsync:// (34 more)
Repo-expire  : 172,800 second(s) (last: Sun 13 Oct 2019 04:28:24 AM BST)
Repo-filename: /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo
Total packages: 1,977
[[email protected] ~]#

Above command’s output confirms that we have successfully enabled epel repo. Let’s perform some basic operations on EPEL repo.

List all available packages from epel repository

If you want to list all the packages from epel repository then run the following dnf command,

[[email protected] ~]#  dnf repository-packages epel list
Last metadata expiration check: 0:38:18 ago on Sun 13 Oct 2019 04:28:24 AM BST.
Installed Packages
epel-release.noarch                                           8-6.el8                                             @epel
Available Packages
BackupPC.x86_64                                               4.3.1-2.el8                                         epel
BackupPC-XS.x86_64                                            0.59-3.el8                                          epel
CGSI-gSOAP.x86_64                                             1.3.11-7.el8                                        epel
CGSI-gSOAP-devel.x86_64                                       1.3.11-7.el8                                        epel
Field3D.x86_64                                                1.7.2-16.el8                                        epel
Field3D-devel.x86_64                                          1.7.2-16.el8                                        epel
GraphicsMagick.x86_64                                         1.3.33-1.el8                                        epel
GraphicsMagick-c++.x86_64                                     1.3.33-1.el8                                        epel
zabbix40-web-mysql.noarch                                     4.0.12-1.el8                                        epel
zabbix40-web-pgsql.noarch                                     4.0.12-1.el8                                        epel
zerofree.x86_64                                               1.1.1-3.el8                                         epel
zimg.x86_64                                                   2.8-4.el8                                           epel
zimg-devel.x86_64                                             2.8-4.el8                                           epel
zstd.x86_64                                                   1.4.2-1.el8                                         epel
zvbi.x86_64                                                   0.2.35-9.el8                                        epel
zvbi-devel.x86_64                                             0.2.35-9.el8                                        epel
zvbi-fonts.noarch                                             0.2.35-9.el8                                        epel
[[email protected] ~]#

Search Package from EPEL Repo

Let’s assume if we want to search Zabbix package in epel repository, execute the following dnf command,

[[email protected] ~]# dnf repository-packages epel list | grep -i zabbix

Output of above command would be something like below,


Install a package from epel repo

Let’s assume we want to install …

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How to Install and Configure VNC Server on Centos 8 / RHEL 8

A VNC (Virtual Network Computing) Server is a GUI based desktop sharing platform that allows you to access remote desktop machines. In Centos 8 and RHEL 8 systems, VNC servers are not installed by default and need to be installed manually. In this article, we’ll look at how to install VNC Server on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 systems with a simple step-by-step installation guide.

Prerequisites to Install VNC Server on Centos 8 / RHEL 8

To install VNC Server in your system, make sure you have the following requirements readily available on your system:

  • CentOS 8 / RHEL 8
  • GNOME Desktop Environment
  • Root access
  • DNF / YUM Package repositories

Step by Step Guide to Install VNC Server on Centos 8 / RHEL 8

Step 1)  Install GNOME Desktop environment

Before installing VNC Server in your CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, make sure you have a desktop Environment (DE) installed. In case GNOME desktop is already installed or you have installed your server with gui option then you can skip this step.

In CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, GNOME is the default desktop environment. if you don’t have it in your system, install it using the following command:

[[email protected] ~]# dnf groupinstall "workstation"
[[email protected] ~]# dnf groupinstall "Server with GUI

Once the above packages are installed successfully then run the following command to enable the graphical mode

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl set-default graphical

Now reboot the system so that we get GNOME login screen.

[[email protected] ~]# reboot

Once the system is rebooted successfully uncomment the line “WaylandEnable=false” from the file “/etc/gdm/custom.conf” so that remote desktop session request via vnc is handled by xorg of GNOME desktop in place of wayland display manager.

Note: Wayland is the default display manager (GDM) in GNOME and it not is configured to handled remote rendering API like

Step 2) Install VNC Server (tigervnc-server)

Next we’ll install the VNC Server, there are lot of VNC Servers available, and for installation purposes, we’ll be installing TigerVNC Server. It is one of the most popular VNC Server and a high-performance and platform-independent VNC that allows users to interact with remote machines easily.

Now install TigerVNC Server using the following command:

[[email protected] ~]# dnf install tigervnc-server tigervnc-server-module -y

Step 3) Set VNC Password for Local User

Let’s assume we want ‘pkumar’ user to use VNC for remote desktop session, then switch to the user and set its password using vncpasswd command,

[[email protected] ~]# su - pkumar
[[email protected] ~]$ vncpasswd
Would you like to enter a view-only password (y/n)? n
A view-only password is not used
[[email protected] ~]$
[[email protected] ~]$ exit
[[email protected]techi ~]#

Step 4) Setup VNC Server Configuration File

Next step is to configure VNC Server Configuration file. Create a file “/etc/systemd/system/[email protected]” with the following content so that tigervnc-server’s service started for above local user “pkumar”.

[[email protected] ~]# vim /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]
Description=Remote Desktop VNC Service


ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/vncserver -kill %i > /dev/null 2>&1 || :'
ExecStart=/usr/bin/vncserver -autokill %i
ExecStop=/usr/bin/vncserver -kill %i


Save and exit the file,

Note: Replace the user name in above file which suits to your setup.

By default, VNC server listen on tcp port 5900+n, …

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How To Have A Faster User Experience In Chrome

There are many fast browsers and search engines out there. Among all these, Google Chrome is one of them. When one uses a search engine, data is downloaded, uploaded, and stored. This causes the user experience to slow down. Servers can go slow, loading of pages go slow, and so on. This can cause frustration among users, especially those who are using it for work-related tasks.

If you are using Chrome to upload content during the deadline, or going online shopping because the item you’ve been eyeing on is finally on sale, there is something you can do to make things faster. These steps will help you improve the speed and overall experience.

The first thing you do is to clear the browsing data. The reason why you have data stored in your cache and history from all of your searches and pages you’ve opened is that Chrome wants to load them faster for you the next time you visit them. The more pages you open, the more data is collected and stored. This means that Chrome can work slower.

Thankfully, the solution to this is easy: clear your cache. To do this, simply access your browsing history by entering chrome://history on your address bar. From the left panel, select Clear browsing data. Choose which data will be deleted by clicking on the checkboxes of all items you want to delete, like cached images or cookies. You can also select the time range that will be affected by the deletion. You can delete your history for the past hour, the last 24 hours, the last 7 days, the last 4 weeks, or from the beginning of time. Once you’ve selected the files you want to delete and their corresponding time range, click Clear data.

Another thing you can do is to deactivate or not enable the extensions. Chrome extensions are available for download. These are like programs that give your Chrome browser a personal touch. Depending on what you need or want, you can download a lot of different extensions available on Chrome. They are there to add into, remove, or change a certain function according to your preferences to make the way you use Chrome more convenient. But the more extensions you install, the more the browser can slow down.

Most extensions will show on Chrome’s address bar, and you can quickly uninstall them by right-clicking on their icons and selecting Remove from Chrome. You can also manage all extensions by typing chrome://extensions on your browser and hitting Enter. From there, you’ll find a list of all the extensions you have (even those you don’t remember installing). Simply scroll through the list and click Remove to delete the extensions you don’t need.

Have you ever tried opening a page and an ad pops up every time you click parts of the page? This is called adware or malware. They appear for the purpose of advertising. Others come in the form of extensions.

Sometimes, Chrome slows down because of malware or adware extensions. Extra toolbars, recurring pop-up ads, and web pages redirecting to other addresses are clear indications of these. Google once had a downloadable app developed for Chrome that scans and removes unwanted

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4 Laptops You Can Get For Less Than $300

Are you looking for a laptop? You have a lot of options out there but if you’re on a budget, your options maybe limited. Nonetheless, you’d still be able to one. That’s for sure.

If you’re looking for a laptop under $300, you’re going to have to make some sacrifices, but that doesn’t mean you have to be stuck with a bad notebook. There are laptops under $300 that offer 1080p displays, long battery life and even 2-in-1 functionality. If you’re against getting a Chromebook, you might want to reconsider, especially because that device will most likely run a lot smoother with a weaker processor compared to a Windows 10 machine.


Here are the 4 options you can look into. You can start with HP Stream 11.

The HP Stream 11 is one of the best Windows 10 laptops you can find at this price. The Stream’s cute, 11-inch chassis is packed with all-day battery life and relatively strong performance. This laptop is also incredibly portable, weighing in at 2.5 pounds and measuring just 0.7 inches thick. And even though its keyboard can be a little cramped, it offers decent key travel. You won’t find a better Windows laptop for under $200.


The HP Chromebook 14 is also worth looking into.

The Intel version of the HP Chromebook 14 is a solid improvement over its AMD counterpart. For just under $300, you get an attractive laptop with a 14-inch, 1920 x 1080 display, which is an incredibly rare combination at this price point. To top it all off, HP’s Chromebook 14 features a comfortable keyboard and a battery that can last an entire workday and then some. If you’re looking for a Chromebook that doesn’t scream elementary school, then the HP Chromebook 14 is the one to get.


The Lenovo IdealPad 330 is packed with a lot of features for a very affordable price.

We wouldn’t call the Lenovo IdeaPad 330 one of the best laptops around, but for under $300, it’s pretty decent. Its design is pretty standard, but the chassis itself is actually sturdy, not giving into pressure when flexed. Additionally, Lenovo’s gold-standard keyboard design remains intact on this budget machine, as the system is super comfortable to type on. However, be wary of its short, 5:52 battery life and its subpar Celeron N4100 processor.


The Lenovo Chromebook C330 boasts of a long battery life.

The Lenovo Chromebook C330 gets nearly 10 hours of battery life as well as a comfortable keyboard and a neat HDMI port, which is somewhat rare for a Chromebook. This 11-inch convertible is also pretty light and thin, coming in at 2.8 pounds and 0.8 inches thick. But as much as it has notable bright spots, there are some flaws – namely, its underwhelming performance and dull display.


So, if you’re working on a very limited budget, don’t worry. You can look into the 4 laptops mentioned above.

Of course, you would have to factor in the cost of buying Microsoft OS and Office. You would also have to consider a strong anti-virus. These are must-haves for your new laptop.

The 4 laptops mentioned above are pretty good …

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5 Best Security Tools to Have on Your Linux PC

Everyone hails Linux for its built-in security. Compared to Windows or other operating systems, the way Linux assigns file permissions is different. The infrastructure is much more robust. Plus, malware creators tend to target Linux less often due to it having a smaller percentage of users in general. Thus, there are fewer potential targets to […]


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