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How to Manage Linux Log Files Using Logrotate

In a Linux system and pretty much all systems – log files are crucial when it comes to examining and troubleshooting errors. They provide important clues as to what could have gone wrong with various system services prior to failure.

Any service installed on your Linux systems such as Apache web server or MySQL database server generates log files that are usually stored in the /var/log directory. If you check the contents of this directory, you will see contents similar to what we have below:

Over time, as additional information gets logged, the log files increase in size and take up more space on your hard drive. Before you even know it, the log files will have ballooned in size, gobbling up much of your hard drive space, and if you are not careful, you can easily run out of disk space.

With that in mind, it becomes prudent to keep the log files to a manageable size and delete old log entries that hog precious disk space. And this is where the log rotation comes in.

What is log rotation ?

Log rotation is a process that creates new log files and archives & removes old ones to save on disk space. The process renames a current log file. For example, apport.log becomes apport.log.1 and a new apport.log log file is created to log new log entries. Older log files are usually compressed and appear as  apport.log.2.gz, apport.log.3.gz, apport.log.4.gz, and so on.

The log rotation process is facilitated using a utility called logrotate. This is a tool that facilitates the rotation of log files and archival & removal of old ones to free up disk space. In summary, logrotate accomplishes the following:

  • Creation of new log files after rotating old ones.
  • Archival of old log files.
  • Purging of older log files that have been rotated to save on space.

Log rotation is usually activated when the size of log files grows and exceeds a certain limit.

How logrotate utility works

Before we examine the workings of the logrotate utility, ensure that logrotate is installed on your system. To do that, issue the command:

For Debian / Ubuntu System:

$ sudo apt-get install logrotate -y

For CentOS / RHEL / Fedora System:

$ sudo yum install logrotate -y
or 
$ sudo dnf  install logrotate -y

Run below command to check logrotate version,

[email protected]:~$ logrotate --version
logrotate 3.14.0
    Default mail command:       /usr/bin/mail
    Default compress command:   /bin/gzip
    Default uncompress command: /bin/gunzip
    Default compress extension: .gz
    Default state file path:    /var/lib/logrotate/status
    ACL support:                yes
    SELinux support:            yes
[email protected]:~$

From the output, we can clearly see that we have logrotate version 3.14.0. By default, logrotate comes preinstalled in modern Linux distributions and hence no need to install it.

Logrotate configuration files

Logrotate runs daily as a cron job, going through various log files, rotating them, and purging older log files as defined in the configuration file. There are two main configuration sources that you need to pay close attention to:

/etc/logrotate.conf – This is the main configuration file for the logrotate tool. It contains default settings and facilitates log rotation for non-system package logs. More notably, it uses an ‘include‘ directive for pulling configurations located in the ‘…

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Minecraft Dungeons Artifact Location Guide

Minecraft Dungeons Artifact Location Guide
In Minecraft Dungeons you will get Artifacts that act as skills to improve you combat abilities. Check out this Minecraft Dungeons Artifact location guide to find out where to get the ones you want. Some improve melee, others improve ranged, and some add magic.

Minecraft Dungeons Artifact Location Guide

This is for the Default and Adventure difficulties of the game.

Firework Arrow
First Artifact you get in the tutorial. This makes your arrow turn into a firework and explode when it hits an enemy.

Creeper Woods Artifact Location Guide

Tasty Bone
Spawns a wolf companion that fights with you.
Fishing Pole
This is a reward for beating the tutorial. You drag an enemy towards you and stun them. You can also get it as a reward from the Creeper Crypt level.
Death Cap Mushroom
You get this one for beating the Creeper Woods level. When you use the mushroom, you gain increased attack and speed for a few seconds.
Boot Of Swiftness
Make your movement speed go up for a short time.
Torment Quiver
Don’t remember what this one does.

Creepy Crypt Artifact Location Guide

Boots Of Swiftness
Make your movement speed go up for a short time.
Fishing Pole
You drag an enemy towards you and stun them.
Tasty Bone
Spawns a wolf companion that fights with you.

Soggy Swamp Artifact Location Guide

Harvester
Harvest Souls and you can use it to do a big AOE attack when charged.
Fishing Pole
You drag an enemy towards you and stun them.
Lightning Rod
Uses souls to call down a lightning strike.
Totem Of Regeneration
You put a totem down that heals you over time.

Pumpkin Pastures Artifact Location Guide

Light Feather
You jump in the air and do a dive attack.
Wind Horn
Pushes all enemies, minus bosses, away from you.
Corrupted Beacon
Forgot what this one does.
Flaming Quiver
Gives you fire arrows for a limited amount of time.

Cacti Canyon Artifact Location Guide

Wind Horn
Pushes all enemies, minus bosses, away from you.
Wonderful Wheat
Summons a Llama companion to fight with you.
Corrupted Beacon
Forgot what this one does.
Totem Of Shielding
Puts a shield around you and your allies for a few seconds.

Redstone Mines Artifact Location Guide

Fireworks Arrows
Makes your arrow explode on impact like a firework.
Harvester

Absorb souls and then do a big AOE attack.

Tasty Bone
Summon a wolf companion.
Corrupted Beacon
Forgot what this one does.

Desert Temple Artifact Location Guide

Boots Of Swiftness
Increases players speed.
Shock Powder
Don’t remember what this one does.
Totem Of Shielding
Puts a shield around you and your allies for a few seconds.
Torment Quiver
Don’t remember what this one does.

Fiery Forge Artifact Location Guide

Ironhide Amulet
Gives you and your allies a defense buff for a few seconds.
Totem Of Regeneration
Gradually regens your hp over time.
Flaming Quiver
Sets your arrows on fire for a few shots.

High Block Halls Artifact Location Guide

Fireworks Arrows
Makes your arrow explode like a firework.
Light Feather
Jump attack.
Deathcap Mushroom
Increases your attack for a few seconds.

Obsidian Pinnacle Artifact Location Guide

Shock Powder

Don’t remember, maybe stuns enemies?

Wonderful Wheat
Summon Llama companion.
Lightning Rod
Uses souls to call down lightning.
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Minecraft Dungeons Gear Location Guide

Minecraft Dungeons Gear Location Guide
Gear and Artifacts are the best way to make your character stronger. This Minecraft Dungeons Gear Location Guide will tell you where to find all the different weapons and armor that we have discovered on our adventure through MC Dungeons.

Rewards from boss battles, enemy drops, completing levels, are all random. However, they are taken from a specific pool of gear exclusive to that particular level. For example, the Creepy Crypt dungeon has a chance to reward a Sword as part of the loot. The level, rarity, enchantments and stats are random based on your character level and game difficulty. As such, if you want to find the best sword, find out which level has the highest difficulty settings as well as the highest difficulty available. This list is up to Adventure difficulty. You won’t find all of the items on Default.

Minecraft Dungeons Weapons Location Guide

Sword
Creepy Crypt
Creeper Woods

Axe
Creeper Woods
Highblock Hills

Pickaxe
Creepy Crypt
Redstone Mines

Bow
Creepy Crypt
Creeper Woods

Soul Bow
Creepy Crypt
Creeper Woods

Glaive
Soggy Swamp
Desert Temple

Daggers
Soggy Swamp

Soul Knife
Soggy Swamp
Desert Temple

Hunting Bow
Soggy Swamp

Scatter Crossbow
Soggy Swamp
Highblock Hills

Sickle
Pumpkin Pastures
Desert Temple

Soul Scythe
Pumpkin Pastures

Longbow
Pumpkin Pastures
Cacti Canyon

Gauntlets
Cacti Canyon

Cutlass
Cacti Canyon
Fiery Forge

Trick Bow
Cacti Canyon

Short Bow
Cacti Canyon

Crossbow
Cacti Canyon
Obsidian Pinnacle

Heavy Crossbow
Cacti Canyon
Obsidian Pinnacle

Rapid Crossbow
Redstone Mines
Highblock Hills

Daggers
Redstone Mines

Great Hammer
Fiery Forge
Obsidian Pinnacle

Power Bow
Fiery Forge
Highblock Hills

Exploding Crossbow
Fiery Forge

Claymore
Obsidian Pinnacle

Soul Crossbow
Obsidian Pinnacle

Minecraft Dungeons Armor Location Guide

Hunter’s Armor
Creepy Crypt
Creeper Woods

Phantom Armor
Creepy Crypt
Creeper Woods
Redstone Mines

Soul Robe
Creeper Woods
Highblock Hills

Wolf Armor
Creeper Woods
Redstone Mines

Evocation Robe
Soggy Swamp
Obsidian Pinnacle

Mystery Armor
Soggy Swamp
Desert Temple

Scale Mail
Pumpkin Pastures
Fiery Forge

Mercenary Armor
Cacti Canyon
Fiery Forge

Spelunker Armor
Cacti Canyon
Redstone Mines

Thief Armor
Redstone Mines
Desert Temple

Grim Armor
Desert Temple
Obsidian Pinnacle

Reinforced Mail
Fiery Forge

Plate Armor
Fiery Forge

That’s all of the gear and weapons we’ve discovered so far. We’ll continue to update the guide as we discover more items.

Minecraft Dungeons Gear Location Guide

Gear and Artifacts are the best way to make your character stronger. This Minecraft Dungeons Gear Location Guide will tell you where to find all the different weapons and armor that we have

Minecraft Dungeons Artifact Location Guide

In Minecraft Dungeons you will get Artifacts that act as skills to improve you combat abilities. Check out this Minecraft Dungeons Artifact location guide to find out where to get the ones you want

How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons

Many treasure chests lay hidden in MC Dungeons but how do you reach them? This guide on How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons will quickly walk you through jumping across gaps so you can locate

How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons
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How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons

How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons
Many treasure chests lay hidden in MC Dungeons but how do you reach them? This guide on How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons will quickly walk you through jumping across gaps so you can locate some of the hidden treasure chests that appear just slightly out of reach.

While there may be artifacts later in the game that give you more movement abilities, such as the ability to jump, by default there is no jump option in Minecraft Dungeons. Most of the terrain you encounter that is a single block high can be accessed simply by walking, climbing each block one by one as you would a set of stairs. If you come across higher obstacles, 2-3 blocks high, you cannot bypass these at the start so look elsewhere for the chests.

How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons

Getting across gaps however is very possible, but you don’t do it via jumping. Instead you use the rolling feature. I’m sure it takes balls of steel to do a forward roll over gap with a fall so big you’re guaranteed to die, but hey, let’s do it.

Simply approach the ledge and press the dodge button. It’s R1/RB on PlayStation 4 and Xbox One. It’s shown on the screen in the lower right corner, next to arrows. Spacebar on PC. That’s all you have to do, simply get close to the edge and press the roll button to roll across. Be careful however as, if you don’t aim your roll correctly, you can roll straight off the edge. Depending on what’s below, you may have to walk back up or you may just die.

How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons

Many treasure chests lay hidden in MC Dungeons but how do you reach them? This guide on How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons will quickly walk you through jumping across gaps so you can locate

How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons

Want to form a party and play with your friends in MC Dungeons? In this guide on How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons we walk you through the few simple steps to form a party with

The post How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons appeared first on GamersHeroes.

from GamersHeroes http://www.gamersheroes.com/game-guides/how-to-jump-over-gaps-in-minecraft-dungeons/…

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How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons

How To Join Friends Game In Minecraft Dungeons
Want to form a party and play with your friends in MC Dungeons? In this guide on How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons we walk you through the few simple steps to form a party with friends and join the same game so you can adventure together in Minecraft Dungeons. It’s important to note, at the time of writing, Minecraft is not cross-platform between Xbox One and PC or any other platforms including PlayStation 4 and Nintendo Switch.

There are a couple of notes worth mentioning first. Prior to release you were not able to join another players game before you had completed the tutorial. This is a brief level where you try to save a burning village before setting up a small camp. This may change post-release but if you are having problems joining a friends game, make sure you both complete the tutorial first, to the point where you reach your first camp with the Mission Select table.

How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons

How To Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons
You can join a friends game either from the main menu where you select your character, or while you are already in a game. This is assuming you have completed A Cry For Heroes on Squid Coast. Only one player has to have completed the tutorial to invite a friend but it’s a good idea for both to complete the tutorial to get the Fishing Rod Artifact.

After you have completed the tutorial simply open the menu and then look at the Game Sessions part of the pause menu.

How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons

Want to form a party and play with your friends in MC Dungeons? In this guide on How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons we walk you through the few simple steps to form a party with

How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons

Many treasure chests lay hidden in MC Dungeons but how do you reach them? This guide on How To Jump Over Gaps In Minecraft Dungeons will quickly walk you through jumping across gaps so you can locate

The post How To Join & Play With Friends In Minecraft Dungeons appeared first on GamersHeroes.

from GamersHeroes http://www.gamersheroes.com/game-guides/how-to-join-play-with-friends-in-minecraft-dungeons/…

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Is Windows 10X a Threat to iPadOS?

When the iPadOS was released in September 2019, a lot of people believed that this might already be the endgame for mobile operating systems. People were impressed with the iPadOS, claiming that it has made iPads that powerful to the point that iPad owners can already consider their Apple tablets as their main computer. The addition of new capabilities may have been overwhelming at first, but as the users got used to it, it only became a testament to how Apple has incorporated a lot of improvements to it, particularly in the areas of touch gestures and multitasking.

But then comes Microsoft with Windows 10X. Windows 10X is not really something new; it is a version of Windows 10X that is, as of February 2020, still a work in progress. This reengineering of Windows 10 has so far (at least according to those who have experienced it through an emulator for developers) resulted in a sleeker look and a system that is specifically catered for dual-screen devices, such as Microsoft’s own Surface Neo and Lenovo’s ThinkPad X1 Fold. And by the looks of it, Windows 10X may give iPadOS a run for its money.

 

What you see when you boot it up   

While Windows 10X is indeed a new “expression” of Windows X, you won’t necessarily get tiles and a taskbar when you open it just like what you see when you turn on a device running on Windows 10. What you’ll see is a Start menu that is centered and a thicker Taskbar, which feels like the dock on iPads.

Windows 10X is designed exclusively for foldable and dual-screen hardware, and Microsoft has customized it as a result. One of the biggest noticeable changes is the new Windows 10X Start menu. It no longer includes the animated Live Tiles found on Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows Phone, and it now includes a more simplified look.

(Via: https://www.theverge.com/2020/2/11/21132826/microsoft-windows-10x-features-dual-screen-foldable-hands-on-developers)

 

Multitasking gestures  

One of the current selling points of the iPadOS is making multitasking and its associated gestures easier for users. This is one area that Windows 10X also wants to also be recognized in, and so far, reviews on how multitasking can be done with it are promising.

Gestures for multitasking also exist, where you swipe up from the bottom of the display to access the Start menu or list of running apps on the taskbar. You can also access an updated Action Centre from the taskbar that includes quick access to settings like volume, brightness, Bluetooth, rotation lock, and more.

(Via: https://www.criticalhit.net/technology/emulators-give-a-glimpse-of-what-windows-10x-will-be-like/)

 

Notifications

Microsoft has reportedly made controls and notifications look better by not making it as heavy as what is currently seen on Windows 10. Although there’s been an improvement in its looks for Windows 10X, the iPadOS may still be better in not letting controls and notifications be too distracting and allowing them to be more accessible through gestures.

Notifications are now separated in their own dialog, each displaying the name of the app that generated it, along with the typical message included in a notification.

(Via: https://news.softpedia.com/news/a-closer-look-at-notifications-in-windows-10x-529204.shtml)

 

Apps

In this regard, it is obviously iPadOS on the advantage, with its plethora of apps available in Apple’s App Store. The …

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Serious Sam 4 Gets Developer Gameplay Update


Ahead of its launch in August for the PC and Google Stadia, Devolver Digital and Croteam have released a developer gameplay update for Serious Sam 4.

Featuring Chief Creative Officer Davor Hunski, Sound Designer Damjan Mravunac, Graphics Engineer Dean Sekulic, Gameplay Designer Davor Tomicic, and Developer, Special Ops JT, this video shows how they’re looking to expand on the concept of “the enjoyment of arcade.” To achieve this, players will get better and better, hurting what once hurt them.

Other topics include new battle features, the challenge coming to the game, the enemies and characters players will come across, its serious weaponry, the new music, and the Legion System. As they say, Serious Sam 4 is all about excess.

You can view the update below:

Serious Sam 4 – Developer Gameplay Update

Source: Press Release
Serious Sam 4 Gets Developer Gameplay Update

Ahead of its launch in August for the PC and Google Stadia, Devolver Digital and Croteam have released a developer gameplay update for Serious Sam 4

Outriders Broadcast Coming May 28

Take a deep dive into the dark and desperate Outriders universe with the inaugural broadcast for Square Enix and People Can Fly’s game on May 28, 2020

Saints Row: The Third Remastered Gets Launch Trailer

Fully remastered, polished, and ready for 2020, Deep Silver and Sperasoft’s Saints Row: The Third Remastered launches today. Learn more with the launch trailer for the game

Kandagawa Jet Girls Coming This Summer

Created by the same creative minds behind the Senran Kagura series, XSEED Games’ adrenaline-fueled jet racing game Kandagawa Jet Girls will launch stateside for the PlayStation 4 and PC this summer

The post Serious Sam 4 Gets Developer Gameplay Update appeared first on GamersHeroes.

from GamersHeroes http://www.gamersheroes.com/gaming-news/serious-sam-4-gets-developer-gameplay-update/…

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Outriders Broadcast Coming May 28


Take a deep dive into the dark and desperate Outriders universe with the inaugural broadcast for Square Enix and People Can Fly’s game on May 28, 2020.

Dubbed “Built for the Core,” this broadcast will feature new areas, gameplay, never-before-seen powers, deep dives into different character classes, and development updates, among other features.

You can view a teaser below:

Outriders Broadcast #1 – Coming May 28 [ESRB]

According to Bartek Kmita, Creative Director at People Can Fly:

“Obviously, things are a little bit strange in the world right now, and we’re all adapting the best we can. We’ve prioritized our people’s safety and all 250+ of us on the team are working from home and staying healthy. We’re still working hard on the development of OUTRIDERS and keeping on track for a Holiday 2020 release. With the cancellation of some of gaming’s biggest events of the year, we’ve looked for new ways to share news about Outriders with players. We’re really excited to present new details of what we’re working on every month from this point forward with the OUTRIDERS Broadcasts.”

The game will come out for the PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Xbox One, Xbox Series X, and PC this holiday season.

Source: Press Release
Serious Sam 4 Gets Developer Gameplay Update

Ahead of its launch in August for the PC and Google Stadia, Devolver Digital and Croteam have released a developer gameplay update for Serious Sam 4

Outriders Broadcast Coming May 28

Take a deep dive into the dark and desperate Outriders universe with the inaugural broadcast for Square Enix and People Can Fly’s game on May 28, 2020

Saints Row: The Third Remastered Gets Launch Trailer

Fully remastered, polished, and ready for 2020, Deep Silver and Sperasoft’s Saints Row: The Third Remastered launches today. Learn more with the launch trailer for the game

Kandagawa Jet Girls Coming This Summer

Created by the same creative minds behind the Senran Kagura series, XSEED Games’ adrenaline-fueled jet racing game Kandagawa Jet Girls will launch stateside for the PlayStation 4 and PC this summer

The post Outriders Broadcast Coming May 28 appeared first on GamersHeroes.

from GamersHeroes http://www.gamersheroes.com/gaming-news/outriders-broadcast-coming-may-28/…

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Saints Row: The Third Remastered Gets Launch Trailer


Fully remastered, polished, and ready for 2020, Deep Silver and Sperasoft’s Saints Row: The Third Remastered launches today. Learn more with the launch trailer for the game.

Originally released in 2011, this title puts players in control of the Third Street Saints at the height of their power. However, the Syndicate demands tribute, and you refuse to bend the knee. To make this message clear, players will do such outlandish things as take tanks skydiving, call in satellite-targeted airstrikes on Mexican wrestling gangs, and fight against military forces solo.

This release features transformed environments, visual effects, and character models, alongside enhanced graphics and a new lighting engine. All three expansion mission packs and more than 30 pieces of DLC from the original version have been included.

You can view the launch trailer below:

Saints Row®: The Third™ – Remastered Launch Trailer (Official)

The game is currently available for the PlayStation 4, Xbox One, and PC.

Source: Press Release
Serious Sam 4 Gets Developer Gameplay Update

Ahead of its launch in August for the PC and Google Stadia, Devolver Digital and Croteam have released a developer gameplay update for Serious Sam 4

Outriders Broadcast Coming May 28

Take a deep dive into the dark and desperate Outriders universe with the inaugural broadcast for Square Enix and People Can Fly’s game on May 28, 2020

Saints Row: The Third Remastered Gets Launch Trailer

Fully remastered, polished, and ready for 2020, Deep Silver and Sperasoft’s Saints Row: The Third Remastered launches today. Learn more with the launch trailer for the game

Kandagawa Jet Girls Coming This Summer

Created by the same creative minds behind the Senran Kagura series, XSEED Games’ adrenaline-fueled jet racing game Kandagawa Jet Girls will launch stateside for the PlayStation 4 and PC this summer

The post Saints Row: The Third Remastered Gets Launch Trailer appeared first on GamersHeroes.

from GamersHeroes http://www.gamersheroes.com/gaming-news/saints-row-the-third-remastered-gets-launch-trailer/…

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Maneater Review

A little less than two years after its announcement, the infamous shARkPG Maneater is finally here. Is this underwater adventure worth playing, or should you stick to the beach? Check out our review and find out.

Maneater Review

Maneater starts near a lovely little ocean beach, one that is peaceful and vibrant as swimmers go about their business. Enter Momma Bullshark, a massive predator looking for some dinner. Here you will learn the basics of how to feed, escape, and even beach yourself to catch food on land. After you’ve had your fun, the peaceful day is ended as a shark hunter named Scaley Pete hunts you down. Momma Bullshark is captured and killed, but not before Pete removes a baby Bullshark, or you in this instance.

Pete marks you with his blade, and you take his hand before escaping into the bayou to grow up for vengeance. There is a minor story attached to the game, with Pete’s TV show popping up from time to time. For you, though, finding Pete has to be put on the back burner while you grow big and strong. To do that, you will need to eat, eat, and eat. The more you eat, the quicker you level up and the bigger you get.

At first, this is challenging because of your size. As a baby Bullshark, you are fighting with large fish that can kill you. By the time you grow up, you can eat those same fish in a single gulp. While the first couple stages of your evolution focus on survival, the later stages are about wreaking havoc on the local humans and wildlife. As you progress through each area, you will come across new predators under the water and have to face off with stronger hunters above. Still, after reaching adulthood, I rarely died unless it was from suffocating above water.

Maneater Honest Game Review

As a Bullshark, you have only a couple of attack options. You can bite, grab, and tail slap. I rarely used the tail slap except when I wanted to launch humans into the ocean. The bite is mapped to R2 on PlayStation 4, and my lord, do you have to spam it. I am talking about feeling it in your forearm you are spamming it so much. When you eat a fish in a single gulp, it is cool. However, most of the large fish take a few bites, and the top predator fish can take upwards of 20-30 bites. Don’t even get me started on the later stage boats; they are like floating tanks without the right mutations.

The biggest problem with the combat is the lock-on, or rather the lack thereof. Unfortunately, players must focus on your target instead of having a consistent lock-on. When you are fighting underwater, the enemies glide around. The bad targeting make it challenging to keep up with your prey underwater. You can hold the stick down and keep the target going, but why not just have it as a toggle at that point? That one adjustment would have eliminated many of my problems with the repetitive combat.

One of the great parts of the game are the mutations, which act as armor and weapon sets for your shark. There aren’t …

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